This section is from the book "Sub-Alpine Plants Or Flowers Of The Swiss Woods And Meadows", by H. Stuart Thompson. Also available from Amazon: Sub-Alpine Plants: Or, Flowers of the Swiss Woods and Meadows.
Fruit a woody, 1-seeded nut, enclosed in the much enlarged coriaceous involucre. Species 7.
A glandular, pubescent shrub, rarely a tree of 30 feet. Leaves orbicular-cordate, doubly serrate cuspidate. Fruit a woody 1-seeded nut, enclosed in the greatly enlarged coriaceous involucre. Male catkins 1-2 inches, several in a raceme; female heads sessile, crimson.
Woods, thickets, hedges, etc., from the plains up to about 5000 feet in Switzerland, though the maximum limit varies considerably.
Europe, Western Asia, N. Africa.
Fruit usually in pairs, enclosed in the hardened or coriaceous involucre. Species 15.
Tall trees with smooth bark. Leaves oblong-ovate, acuminate, obscurely toothed, shortly petioled, silky when young. Fruit usually in pairs, and enclosed in the hardened coriaceous scaly involucre (beech-mast). Male flowers capitate, pendulous; female flowers on shorter peduncles.
Woods, up to 1680 m. in French Switzerland, and 1500 m. in Tessin, and 1350 m. in N. Switzerland, fide Schinz.
Temperate Europe, Asia Minor, Caucasus, Persia, Japan.
Fruit an acorn, seated in a smooth or spiny cup. About 300 species. Distributed throughout the northern hemisphere.
Scales of cups long, linear-subulate, spreading and twisted. Leaves sinuate or pinnatifid, oblong. Mountain woods in Tessin. April.
Southern and Eastern Europe, Western Asia.
A small tree, the leaves petioled, oboval, sinuate or lobed, pubescent beneath. Twigs pubescent.
Dry hills and woods, extending to about 1450 m. in Switzerland, fide Schinz (Poschiavo, Jura, Rhone Valley, etc.).
Central and Southern Europe, Western Asia.
Leaves sinuate-lobed, very shortly petioled, glabrous like the twigs. Acorns on long peduncles.
According to Keller and Schinz, this extends to 1000 metres in the Oberland of St. Gall., 800 m. in Swiss Jura, and 1250 m. in the Valais.
Europe, Asia Minor, Caucasus, Morocco.
Leaves with longish petioles, very short peduncles, and acorns nearly sessile. Leaves pubescent below; twigs glabrous.
Dry hills, especially on limestone, but less common in Switzerland than the last, except in Valais and the Southern Alps, where it reaches 1600 m. (Keller and Schinz).
Europe, especially Central, Western Asia.