Andromeda L. Andromeda Polifolia L. Marsh Andromeda

A low, branching, wiry shrub 6-12 inches high, glabrous. Leaves alternate, oblong, lanceolate, evergreen, revolute at the edges, and very glaucous beneath. Flowers on pedicels, in short terminal clusters; corolla pale pink or nearly white, waxy, ovoid and enclosing the 10 stamens.

Peat bogs of Northern Europe, Asia, and America to the Arctic regions, and in similar places in the mountains of Central Europe (Alps, Jura, Pyrenees). Rather rare in Switzerland. British, but strangely absent from the Scotch Highlands, where so many plants of similar continental distribution are found. It flowers in May and June. In 1901 it was found by Mons. Beauverd in the Tourbieres des Glieres at 1500 m. in the Alps of Annecy, and hitherto in only one other French Alpine station.

Arctostaphylos Adanson. Bearberry

Low, straggling shrubs, with alternate, entire, or toothed leaves, and rather small flowers, 2 or 3 together in short, terminal racemes. Ovary with only one ovule in each cell. Fruit a berry. The genus is represented more fully in America than in Europe or Asia.

Arctostaphylos Alpina Spreng

A small under-shrub, forming great masses or cushions on rocks and stones. Leaves often dry, annual, toothed, wedge-shaped or narrowly obovate, running into the leaf-stalk, ciliate at the base, otherwise glabrous, reticulately veined. The new leaves are not developed at time of flowering. Flowers 2-6, arranged in a raceme at the summit of the branches, small, greenish or reddish white. Drupe green, then red, and finally blue-black, not ripening till the second year.

Stony places on the calcareous Alps up to 8500 feet. May, June.


Carpathians, Eastern, Central, and Western Alps; Jura, Pyrenees; high mountains of Europe; Arctic Europe and Asia; Rocky Mountains. British.

Arctostaphylos Uva Ursi L. Red Bearberry. (Plate XII)

A small, much-branched shrub 3-6 feet high. Leaves evergreen, glossy above, with sunken dots (brown glands) beneath, usually entire, but rarely, as in the drawing, somewhat toothed, leathery, net-veined. Flowers white or pale pink, larger than the last, in compact, drooping, terminal racemes. Berries globular, bright red, smooth and shining.

Dry, rocky, or heathy places in the plains, sub-Alps, and Alps up to 8000 feet; rarely 9000 feet. On heaths in Scotland. April, May.


Central and Northern Europe, Asia and N. America to the Arctic Circle.

Calluna Salisb. Calluna Vulgaris Hull. Ling, Or Heather

Small, straggling shrubs. Leaves acicular, very small and short. Flowers pink or rarely white. Stamens with anthers dorsally fixed. Calyx coloured like the corolla, with 4 small bracts at the base.

Heaths, woods, and mountain-sides up to 8800 feet in Switzerland, preferring siliceous rocks. July to October.


Central and Northern Europe to the Arctic Circle, Western Asia, Morocco, Azores. N. America. British Isles.