This section is from the book "Sub-Alpine Plants Or Flowers Of The Swiss Woods And Meadows", by H. Stuart Thompson. Also available from Amazon: Sub-Alpine Plants: Or, Flowers of the Swiss Woods and Meadows.
Stem erect, simple, 1-2 feet high, purple above. Lower leaves elliptic, petioled, the upper ones lanceolate, acute, sessile, 3-nerved. Calyx-lobes reflexed, equal. Flowers sessile, usually in clusters in the axils of the leaves. Corolla dull purple, with pale greenish yellow base and streaked with reddish brown, campanulate, 5-7 cleft, throat naked. Root very bitter.
Sub-alpine pastures, 4500-6500 feet; chiefly on limestone. July, August.
Carpathians, Eastern Alps, Erzgebirge. In Switzerland only on the northern side of the Curfirsten. Bavaria, Bohemia, Transylvania.
Stem erect, 1-2 feet high, simple. Leaves oval-lanceolate, the lower ones petioled, the upper sessile. Calyx-lobes erect, cleft almost to the base on one side in the form of a spathe. Corolla campanulate, reddish brown or purple outside, yellowish within, rarely white or yellow; divided one-third of its length into oval, obtuse lobes. Flowers sessile.
1. GENTIANA PURPUREA.
2. G. PURPUREA VAR. FLAVIDA.
3. G KOCHIANA (BLUE AND WHITE).
4. CLADONIA SP.
5. GENTIANA CAMPESTRIS (MAUVE AND WHITE).
4/7 NATURAL SIZE.
Alpine and sub-alpine pastures and rough, broken ground under fir trees. July, August.
Tyrol, Styria, Hungary, Bavaria (rare), Switzerland, Western Alps, Southern Norway, Kamtschatka.
On the same plate is also an illustration of the yellow variety flavida, which grows about le Planet sur Argentiere and occasionally in Switzerland.
Stem erect or ascending, 6-18 inches high, simple, very leafy. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, 3-5 nerved; stem-leaves sheathing, decussate; upper leaves much longer than the flowers. Flowers blue, rather small for the size of the plant, sessile, campanulate, 4-cleft (the lobes being triangular, acute) in a dense panicle at the leafy top of the stem. Calyx short, with 3-4 spathulate teeth.
Thickets and grassy, gravelly places on the Alps and sub-Alps, not often above 5800 feet, and usually on limestone. Frequent in the plains. June to September.
Central Europe, France, Portugal, N. Spain, N. Italy, S. Russia, Greece, Asia Minor, Caucasus, Armenia, Siberia.
Root very long and tapering, sometimes 2 feet or more in length. Stem erect, simple, 1-3 feet high, many-flowered, leafy except at the base. Stem-leaves lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, 5-nerved, sessile, from a rounded base; no root-leaves. Flowers usually in clusters of 2-3 in the axils of the upper leaves, forming a long terminal leafy, spicate cyme. Corolla campanulate, 5-cleft, large (1 1/2-2 inches long), dark azure-blue or ultramarine, variegated internally with white streaks and dark spots, throat naked. Corolla-teeth not fringed, lanceolate, acuminate. Calyx tubular, with 5 very short linear teeth. Flowers rarely white. (See plate).
Bushy sub-alpine regions and stony Alpine pastures up to 6800 feet, especially on limestone; a very handsome species. July to September.
Carpathians, Erzgebirge, Eastern, Central, and Western Alps; Vosges, Jura, Corsica, Dalmatia, Bithynia, Greece, Caucasus, Asia Minor.