Pinus Strobus L. Weymouth Pine

A tree attaining 80 feet in height. Leaves in bundles of 5, 2-4 inches long, slender, trigonous, green and glossy on one side, glaucous on the 2 other sides. Cone shortly peduncled, up to 6 inches long, cylindrical and tapering, pendent, chocolate-brown in colour. Scales rather thin, smooth, striated.

1 In Siberia the Scots Pine reaches lat. 62 1/2° (Seebohm), and in Norway it reaches the North Cape, 300 miles within the Arctic Circle.

Completely naturalised and often cultivated in Switzerland and France, both in masses and singly in the forests. May. Originally from N. America.

Pinus Laricio L

This southern species is cultivated in plantations, and solitary specimens are occasionally seen in forests, but it is not supposed to be native in Switzerland. The leaves are long and glaucous, the cones ovoid-conical, sub-sessile, the boss of the scales pale yellow. Heart-wood blackish grey.

Abies Miller. Fir

Characters the same as those of Pinus, but the leaves are solitary and evergreen.

Abies Alba Miller (A. Pectinata Dc). Silver Fir

Leaves pectinate, 2-5 cms. long, with 2 white lines beneath, disposed all round the fruiting twigs at the top. Cone-cylindrical, reddish violet first, then green, erect, shorter than in A. excelsa (8-10 cms.), with prominent bracts. Scales dentate, shortly petioled, and falling with the seeds. Heart-wood light grey.

According to Schinz and Wilczek it reaches a height of 1800 metres in Switzerland, and forms great belts of forest from about 1000-1600 metres, and to 1300 metres in the Jura. According to my own observation in the Eastern Pyrenees this tree forms (with P. austriaca and P. picea) the chief forests, and in certain districts the forest-belt lies between about 5500 and 6700 feet. May.


Eastern, Central, and Western Alps; Vosges, Jura, Pyrenees, Corsica; Central and Southern Europe, Caucasus, Asia Minor.

Picea Dietrich

Leaves (or needles) compressed, 4-angled. Cone pendent, falling in one piece (in Abies the scales only fall), the scales persistent on the rachis.

Picea Excelsa Link (Abies Excelsa Poir.). Spruce Fir

Leaves mucronate, somewhat 4-edged, green, disposed equally all round the twigs. Cone cylindrical (10-15 cms.), pendulous, without bracts. Scales dentate, sessile, and persistent. Heart-wood brown.

In Switzerland it reaches from the plains to the upper limit of trees (1650-1980 metres), except in Tessin, the Grisons and the Valais, where the Larch and the Arolla Pine (P. Cembra) are the highest trees (Schinz).


Eastern, Central, and Western Alps; Jura, Vosges, Central and Northern Europe, Siberia. Very often planted.