Fragaria Vesca L. Common Strawberry

Calyx spreading or reflexed in fruit. Usually with slender stolons. Leaves mostly radical, covered with silky hairs like the stems.

Fruit easily detached from the calyx. Flowers white, rather smaller than the last.

Woods and clearings, banks, etc., in the plains and sub-Alps. May.


Europe, including British Isles, Asia, N. Africa, N. and S. America.

Fragaria Elatior Ehrh, (F. Moschata Duchense). Hautboy Strawberry

Stems longer than the leaves. Flowers quite large. Calyx spreading horizontally. Fruit adhering to the calyx. A larger and more robust plant. Woods and banks. April to June.


Central and Eastern Europe; Northern Asia, Japan.

Geum L

Herbs with a short perennial stock and annual erect stems. Leaves pinnate, with few unequal segments, and yellow, red, or white flowers, growing singly on long peduncles at the ends of the stem or branches. Calyx of 5 equal divisions, with 5 very small outer ones alternating. Petals 5. Stamens numerous. Carpels numerous, 1-seeded, ending in a hairy awn, which is hooked at the tip.

A small genus, spread over the temperate and colder regions of Europe, Asia, and North America, and descending along the Andes.

Geum Montanum L. (Plate XVI)

Rootstock more or less horizontal, and with long fibres. Stem erect, about 6 or 8 inches high, villous like the leaves, 1-flowered. Root-leaves lyrate-pinnatifid; segments ovate or roundish, obtuse, mnequally crenate, the lower ones much smaller, the terminal one very large, obscurely lobed; stem-leaves small, 3-cleft, dentate. Flowers very handsome, golden yellow. Achenes forming a nearly globular head, villous. Regarded by the inhabitants of the Alps as having wonderful properties in healing various diseases.

Pastures and rocky places of the Alps, from 4500-9500 feet. Much commoner than G. reptans, which is purely Alpine. June, July.


Carpathians, Balkans, Eastern, Central, and Western Alps; Pyrenees, Corsica.

Geum Rivale L. Water Avens

Stems erect or ascending about a foot high. Leaves mostly radical, with a large, orbicular terminal segment, coarsely toothed or lobed, or sometimes divided into 3, and a few very small segments lower down the stalk. Flowers few, drooping, dull purplish red, with a tinge of orange. Carpels very hairy, in a globular head.

Damp places near rivers, etc., especially in the mountain districts. May to July.


Europe, Western and Northern Asia, N. America. British.

Dryas L. Dryas Octopetala L

Stem somewhat shrubby and woody, branched, prostrate, forming flat cushions, extending sometimes a couple or more feet from one root. Leaves evergreen, cordate-ovate, crenate, blunt, glabrous and shining on the upper surface, white and hoary beneath. Stipules lanceolate-subulate, more or less hairy like the leaf-stalk and flower-stalk. Calyx and upper part of flower-stalk with short, glandular hairs. Flowers solitary, large, white, terminal. Seed-vessel feathery in fruit. Petals 8-9. Calyx 8-9 lobed.

Rocky places and high pastures, especially on limestone, from 4300 to 9000 feet, and occasionally descending to the plains; frequent. June to August.


Mountain ranges of Europe from the Pyrenees to the Caucasus, Arctic Europe, Siberia, N. America; Scotland.

There are only 2, or possibly 3, species of this genus; the present one is found fossilized in parts of Europe.