12. Wild Chervil, Anthriscus sylvestris, Hemlock family. One of our commonest hedgerow plants: it is coarse, with a rough, furrowed stem about 3 ft. high, and large, doubly feather-compound leaves, the leaflets of which are much notched: the umbels are large, and show well the special advantage of this type of inflorescence - the individual flowers are small and inconspicuous, but in the mass they form a very showy object: the effect is still further enhanced by the fact that the external petals of the external flowers are much enlarged: flowers in spring and early summer. The Rough Chervil has less cut leaves and ribbed, instead of smooth, fruits.
13. Angelica, Angelica sylvestris. Hemlock family. A common plant in damp shady places: the stem is smooth, tinged with purple, about 3 ft. high, and bears the large pinkish-white umbels and the leaves: these are large, smooth, doubly compound, with ovate, serrate leaflets: flowers in late summer. A related species cultivated in gardens and occasionally escaping was formerly used in medicine and is still employed in making confectionery.
14. Cow-parsnip, Hog-weed, Heracleum Sphondylium, Hemlock family. This coarse plant is a common weed of banks and pastures: the stem is about 4 ft. high, and, as well as the leaves, is rough with coarse hairs: the leaves are very large and compound, the leaflets being deeply cut into serrate lobes: the umbels are large, creamy or tinged with red, and flower about mid-summer.
15. Hedge Parsley.
15. Hedge Parsley, Caucalis Anthriscus, Hemlock family. The slender stems are usually about 2 ft. high, and carry numerous small umbels of white or reddish flowers, opening in summer: the fruits are markedly prickly: the leaves are fine, doubly feather-compound, and with, ovate, serrate leaflets: the plant is common on banks and in hedges.
16. Traveller's Joy, Old Man's Beard, Clematis Vitalba, Crowfoot family. One of the most familiar and beautiful denizens of the English hedgerows: the stem rambles over bushes and trees, often almost hiding the hedge: the leaves are opposite, feather-compound with ovate, coarsely serrate leaflets: the leaf stalk acts as a tendril, twisting round any convenient support, and so aiding the plant to climb: the flowers which appear in June, in small bunches, in the leaf axils are devoid of petals, and possess only 4 oval greyish sepals: in autumn the flowers are succeeded by clusters of little seed-like fruits, each with a long feathery style, and to these the plant owes its chief claim to beauty.
16. Traveller's Joy.
17. Wood Anemone.
17. Wood Anemone, Anemone nemorosa, Crowfoot family. A familiar plant in shady woods, flowering in spring: the stem is subterranean, and gives rise each year to 2 to 3 leaves, and a slender flower-stalk, which bears 3 leaves and a single flower: the leaves are deeply palm-divided into 3 to 5 notched segments: the flower is devoid of corolla, but the sepals are petal-like, generally white, but sometimes purple in colour.
18. Water Crowfoot, Ranunculus aquatilis, Crowfoot family. A large number of forms of Water Crowfoot, all resembling each other fairly closely, are to be found in our streams and ponds: all have submerged leaves, which are cut into a number of very fine hair-like segments; some have in addition less divided aerial leaves: the small flowers are produced above the surface of the water; the petals are white, except for a yellow spot on the inner side: flowers in summer. The Ivy-leaved Crowfoot is a form common in ditches, with leaves like those of the ivy.
19. White Climbing Fumitory, Corydalis claviculata, Fumitory family. A slender rambler, often attaining a length of 3 to 4 ft., and growing through and over bushes (especially whin and bramble): the leaves are bright green and feather-compound, each leaflet being divided into three secondary leaflets; the tip of the leaf is occupied by the delicate branched tendril, which enables the plant to climb: the flowers, which are small and cream-coloured, have a blunt spur projecting back, and occur in little groups of four or five in summer.
18. Water Crowfoot.
20. Water-Cress, Nasturtium officinale. Cress family. The Water-Cress is found everywhere in small streams of running water: the stem is usually 1 to 2 ft. long, rising out of the water at least at the tip, which bears a spike of small white flowers: the leaves are feather-compound, with ovate leaflets: the plant is much more slender if it grows out of water, but in suitable wet positions may be very luxuriant: flowers in summer.
21. Hairy Bitter-Cress, Cardamine hirsuta, Cress family. A common plant of moist meadows: it has a rosette of feathercompound leaves, with roundish, toothed leaflets: from this rises the stem about 1 ft. high, with a few leaves and a spike of small white flowers: the hairy sepals distinguish it readily from land forms of the preceding species: flowers from spring to autumn: the Common Bitter-Cress is a larger species with large white flowers, which have conspicuous violet stamens.
19. White Climbing Fumitory.
21. Hairy Bitter-Cress.