Herbs with opposite (occasionally whorled) and entire leaves, the stems swollen at the joints. Flowers regular, with the parts mostly in fives, occasionally in fours. Stamens not more than twice as many as the petals. Styles 2-5, stigmatic along the inner side. Pod usually 1-celled, with the seeds attached to the base, or to a column which rises from the centre of the cell. (Part I., Fig. 194.)

Synopsis Of The Genera

* Sepals united into a tube or cup. Petals and stamens borne on the stalk of the ovary; petals with long narrow claws.

1. Saponaria. Calyx cylindrical or 5-angled. Styles 2.

2. Stle'ne. Calyx 5-toothed. Styles 3.

3. Lychnis. Calyx 5-toothed. Styles 5.

* * Sepals separate to the base or nearly so. Petals without claws, they and the stamens inserted at the base of the sessile ovary. Low herbs.

+ Stipules none.

4. Arenaria. Petals not cleft at the apex. Styles usually 3. Pod splitting into 3 or 6 valves.

5. Stella ria. Petals 2-cleft at the apex. Pod splitting to the base into twice as many valves as there are styles. Styles generally 3.

6. Ceras'tium. Petals 2-cleft, or notched. Styles 5. Pod opening at the apex by 10 teeth.

7. Sagi'na. Petals 4 or 5, entire. Stamens as many or twice as many.

Styles 4 or 5. Pod 4-5-valved.

+ + Stipules present.

8. Bn«la. Styles 3. Pod 3-valved, short. Leaves filiform or linear, opposite.

9. Sper'gula. Styles 5. Valves of the pod opposite the sepals. Leaves thread-like, whorled.

1. Saponaria. L. Soapwort

1. S. offleina'lis, L. (Bouncing Bet.) A stout perennial, with rose-coloured or pinkish flowers clustered in corymbs. Leaves 3-5-ribbed, the lower ovate, upper lanceolate. Pod raised on a short stalk. Styles 2. - Old gardens and roadsides.

2. S. vaccaria, L. (Common Cow-herb.) Annual, glabrous. Flowers pale red. in corymbed cymes. Calyx 5-angled, wing-angled in fruit. - "Waste places.

2. Sile'ne. L. Catchfly. Campion

1. S. inflata, Smith. (Bladder Campion.) (S. Cucubalus, Wibel.) Pale or glaucous, very smooth. Stem erect, a foot high. Leaves ovate-lanceolate. Calyx much inflated, purple-veined. Stamens and styles exserted. - Not common westward.

2. S. antirrhi'na, L. (Sleepy C.) Stem slender, simple or slightly branching above, a portion of the upper inter-nodes sticky. Leaves linear or lanceolate. Flowers small, pink or purplish, opening only for a short time in sunshine. Calyx ovoid, shining. - Dry soil.

3. S. noctiflo'ra, L. (Night-flowering Catchfly.) Stems very sticky, pubescent. Lower leaves spathulate, upper lanceolate. Flowers few, peduncled. Calyx-tube with awl-shaped teeth. Petals white or whitish, 2-parted. Opening only at night or in cloudy weather. - A very common weed in cultivated grounds.

4. S. Armeria, L. (Sweet-William Catchfly.) Glaucous. Leaves ovate-lanceolate. Flowers pink, in flat cymes. Calyx club-shaped. - Escaped from gardens in some places.

5. S. Virgin'ica, L. (Fire Pink.) Occurs in southwestern Ontario, and may be recognized by its crimson petals, and bell-shaped calyx, nodding in fruit.

6. S. acau'lis, L. (Moss Campion.) A. very small tufted moss-like perennial, 1-2 inches high, with linear crowded leaves. Petals purple or rarely white. - Atl. Prov.

3. Lychnis. Tourn. Cockle

1. L. Githa'go, Lam. (Corn Cockle.) Plant clothed with long soft appressed hairs. Calyx-lobes extremely long, very much like the upper leaves, surpassing the purple petals. - Wheat-fields.

2. L. vesperti'na, Sibth. (Evening L.) Viscid-pubescent. Flowers commonly dioecious, white or pinkish, opening at evening. - Waste grounds in a few localities.'

3. L. diurna, Sibth., resembles the last, but has red flowers, opening in the morning. - Rare.

4. Arenaria. L. Sandwort

1. A. serpyllifo'lia, L. (Thyme - leaved S.) Much branched, 2-6 inches high, roughish-pubescent. Leaves small, ovate, acute. Petals white, hardly as long as the sepals. Sepals pointed, 3-5-nerved. Pod pointed, 6-toothed, - Sandy fields.

2. A. Stricta, Michx. (A. Michauxii, Hook., in Macoun's Catalogue.) Stem erect, or diffusely spreading from a small root. Leaves awl-shaped or bristle-form, the upper ones reduced to 1-nerved bracts, crowded in the axils. Cyme diffuse, many-flowered. Sepals pointed, 3-ribbed, half as long as the white petals. - Rocky fields.

3. A. lateriflo'ra, L. Stem erect, slender, minutely pubescent. Leaves oval or oblong, 1/2-l inch long. Peduncles usually three-flowered. Sepals obtuse. Petals white, large, twice as long as the sepals. Flower 1/3 of an inch across when fully expanded. - Gravelly shores.

4. A. Groenlan'dica, Spreng., is densely tufted, with soft filiform-linear leaves. Flowering stems erect, smooth, 2-4 inches high, few-flowered. Sepals oblong, obtuse, nerveless. - Atl. sea-coast.

5. A. peploi des, L., with very fleshy stems and leaves, the latter somewhat clasping, occurs eastward towards the sea. coast.

5. Stellaria. L. Chickweed. Starwort

1. S. media, Smith. (Common Chickweed.) Stems branching, decumbent, soft and brittle, marked lengthwise with one or two pubescent lines. Lower leaves on hairy petioles, ovate. Flowers small, white. Petals shorter than the sepals. - Extremely common in damp grounds and old gardens.

2. S. longifo'lia, Muhl. (Long-leaved Stitchwort.) Stems branching, very weak and brittle, supporting themselves on other plants. Leaves linear. Pedicels of the flowers long, slender, and spreading, reflexed. Petals white, longer than the 3-nerved sepals. - Low grassy banks of streams.

3. S. lon'gipes, Goldie. (Long - stalked Stitchwort.) Leaves somewhat rigid, ascending, lanceolate, acute, broadest at the base. Cyme terminal, few-flowered, the long pedicels erect, scaly-bracted. Petals longer than the sepals. Seeds smooth.

4. S. gramin'ea, L. Like the last, but the leaves broadest above the base, the pedicels widely spreading, and the seeds strongly but finely rugose. (Int. from Eu.)

5. S. uligino'sa, Murr. (Swamp S.) Stems weak, decumbent or diffuse. Leaves lanceolate or oblong, veiny. Petals and ripe pods as long as the sepals. Seeds roughened. Cymes naked, becoming lateral. - Swamps and rills, eastward.

6. S. crassifo'lia, Ehrh. Stems diffuse or erect, weak. Leaves rather fleshy, lanceolate to oblong, those of flowering branches smaller and thinner. Petals longer than sepals or wanting. Seeds rugose-roughened. Flowers terminal or in the forks of stem or branches. - Wet places.

7. S. borea'lis, Bigelow. (Northern S.) Stem erect or spreading, weak, forking. Leaves broadly-lanceolate to ovate-oblong. Petals 2-5, shorter than the sepals or wanting. Cyme leafy. Seeds smooth. - Wet places.

8. S. humifu'sa, Rottb. Low, spreading or creeping. Leaver fleshy, ovate or oblong. Pedicels axillary or terminal, on leafy stems or branches. Petals a little longer than the sepals. Seeds smooth. - Atl. Prov.

6. Ceras'tium. L. Mouse-ear Chickweed

1. C. visco'sum, L. (Larger M.) Stem ascending, hairy and somewhat clammy. Leaves ovate or obovate, obtuse. Flowers in close clusters. Pedicels not longer than the sepals. Petals shorter than the calyx. - Not common, sometimes confounded with No. 2.

2. C. vulgatum, L. (Common M.) Stems hairy, viscid, spreading. Leaves lanceolate-oblong, rather acute. Flowers in loose cymes. Pedicels longer than the sepals. Petals equalling the calyx. - Fields and copses; common.

3. C. arven'se, L. (Field Chickweed.) Stem decumbent at the base, pubescent, slender, 4-8 inches high. Leaves linear, or linear-lanceolate, of ten fascicled in the axils, longer than the lower internodes. Petals obcordate, more than twice as long as the calyx. Pod scarcely longer than the calyx. Cyme few-flowered.

Var. Oblongifolium, Holl. and Britt. Taller, pubescent. Leaves oblong or oblong-lanceolate. Pod twice as long as the calyx. - S. W. Ontario.

4. C. nutans, Raf. Stems very clammy-pubescent and branching diffusely. The loose and open cymes many-flowered. Leaves lance-oblong. Pods nodding on the stalks. curved upwards, thrice the length of the calyx. - In places where water lies in spring.

1. Sagi'na. L. Peaelwort

1. S. procum'bens, L. (Pearlwort.) A low, matted herb with narrowly linear leaves. Flowers small, terminal, with their parts in fours, rarely in fives. Petals shorter than the ovate, obtuse sepals, or none. Pod many-seeded, 4-5-valved. Top of peduncle often bent into a hook. - Damp places, Atl. Prov.

2. S. nodo'sa, Fenzl. A low, tufted herb. Lower leaves thread-form; the upper short, awl-shaped, with clusters of minute ones in their axils. Parts of flower in fives, the stamens sometimes ten. Petals much longer than sepals. Flowers terminal. Pods as in S. procumbens. - "Wet sandy shores, Atl. Prov.

8. Buda. Adans. Sand-Spurrey

1. B. ru'bra, Dumort. (Spergularia ru'bra, Presl.) Leaves linear, flat, hardly fleshy. Stipules lanceolate. Stems usually glandular-pubescent near the summit. Calyx rather longer than the pink-red corolla, and small pod-Seeds rough with projecting points. - Dry sandy ground Atl. Prov.

2. B. mari'na, Dumort. (Spergularia sali'na, Presl.) More fleshy than B. rubra, usually pubescent. Stipules portulacaceae. 37 ovate. Leaves terete. Sepals a little shorter than the pod. Petals pale. Seeds usually roughened with points. - Sea-coast, Atl. Prov.

3. B. borea'lis, Watson. (Spergularia me'dia, Presl.)

Much branched, glabrous. Petals white. Pod about twice as long as the sepals, nearly or quite smooth. - Sea-coast, and N. W.

9. Sper'gula

L. Spurrey S. arven'sis, L. (Corn Spurrey.) An annual herb resembling a Buda, with numerous thread-like leaves in whorls. Flowers white in panicled cymes. Pod 5-valved. - Grain fields, Atl. Prov. (Int. from Eu.)