Abortive, defective or barren. Acauiescent, apparently without a stem. Achene, a dry indehiscent 1-seeded fruit, with the pericarp free from the seed. Achlamydecras, without calyx and corolla. Acicular, needle-shaped. Acuminate, with a long tapering extremity.

Acute, sharp at the end.

Adnate, grown fast to.

Alternate, not opposite.

Androus, at the end of a word, refers to stamens.

Angiospermous, having seeds enclosed in an ovary.

Annual, lasting one year or season only.

Anterior, in front; away from the axis; the same as lower and outer.

Anther, the pollen-bearing part of the stamen.

Apetalous, without petals. Appressed, lying close and flat. Aquatic, growing in water. Aril, an extra coat or appendage of certain seeds. Ascending, growing upwards in a slanting direction.

Auricle, an ear-like appendage or lobe. Auriculate, having auricles. Awl-shaped, narrowed upward from the base to a sharp rigid point.

Awn, a bristle-like appendage.

Axil, the angle on the upper side of a leaf where it joins the stem.

Axile, central; in the axis.

Axillary, growing from an axil.

Axis, the central line.


Baccate, berry-like. Barbed, with short sharp points, usually pointing backward.

Beaked, tipped with a distinct beak or point.

Bearded, having long or stiff hairs.

Berry, a pulpy fruit like a currant or gooseberry. Bl-, a prefix meaning twice, or two.

Biennial, lasting two years or sea-. sons.

Bifid, two-cleft. Bilabiate, two-lipped. Bladdery, thin and inflated. Blade, the broad part of a leaf. Bract, a modified leaf near a flower or flower-cluster. Bractlet, a secondary bract. Bristle, a stiff hair.

Bud, an undeveloped branch or flower.

Bulb, a fleshy underground mass, consisting chiefly of leaf-scales or coats.

Bulblet, a small bulb, especially one borne on the stem.

Bulbous, having the appearance of a bulb.


Caducous, falling off very early.

Calyx, the outer set of flower-leaves, often coloured like a corolla.

Campanulate, bell-shaped. Canescent, grayish-hoary. Capitate, like a head. Capsule, any dry dehiscent syn-carpous fruit.

Carinate, having a keel-like ridge or projection.

Carpel, one of the parts which, whether separate or united, make up the pistil.

Cartilaginous, firm and tough.

Caryopsls, a grain or fruit like that of a grass.

Catkin, a slender spike-like cluster of usually imperfect flowers, as In Willow, etc.

Caulescent, having a manifest stem.

Cauline, belonging to the stem.

Cespitose, growing in tufts.

Chaff, a small thin scale or bract, becoming dry and membranous.

Channelled, grooved lengthwise.

Cilate, with hairs on the edge.

Cinereous, ash-coloured.

Circumcissile, opening by a horizontal circular line.

Clavate, club-shaped, thicker at the top.

Cleistogamous, applied to certain flowers which are fertilized in the bud, without opening.

Cleft, cut to about the middle.

Climbing, ascending by laying hold of neighbouring objects by means of tendrils, etc.

Cohesion, the union of similar parts.

Coma, a tuft of hairs on a seed.

Compressed, flattened.

Conduplicate, folded together lengthwise.

Confluent, blending together into one.

Coniferous, cone-bearing.

Connate, grown together.

Connective, the middle portion of an anther connecting the cells.

Connivent, converging, approaching each other.

Convolute, rolled up lengthwise.

Cordate, indented at the base.

Coriaceous, leathery in texture.

Corm, a solid bulb, like that of Indian-Turnip. Corolla, the inner of the two sets of the perianth.

Corymb, a flat-topped flower-cluster with pedicels arising at different points on the stem, the outer flowers opening first.

Corymbose, in corymbs; corymblike.

Cotyledons, the seed-leaves.

Creeping, trailing on the ground and striking root at intervals.

Crenate, with rounded teeth.

Crested, bearing an appendage like a crest. Crown, an appendage in the throat of a corolla.

Culm, the peculiar stem of a grass or sedge.

Cuneate, wedge-shaped, the broad end upwards.

Cuspidate, tipped with an abrupt but distinctly tapering point.

Cylindraceous, somewhat cylindrical.

Cyme, a flat-topped flower-cluster, with the central flowers opening first.

Cymose, bearing cymes, or cymelike.