Figure 65. Amanita velatipes

Figure 65

Amanita velatipes. Different stages of "buttons," in the right-hand plant the upper part of the volva separating to form the scales (natural size). Copyright.

The stem is cylindrical, somewhat bulbous, the bulb often tapering abruptly, as shown in Figs. 64, 66. The stem is white, smooth, or floccose scaly where the veil has been ripped off from it. It is hollow and stuffed with loose cottony threads, as shown in Fig. 67. The veil is formed by the ripping up of the outer layer of the stem as the latter elongates and as the pileus expands. When it is freed from the margin of the cap it collapses and hangs downward as a broad collar (Fig. 64). The annulus is inferior, its position on the stem being due to the peculiar way in which it is formed.

Plate 15, Figure 64

Plate 15, Figure 64

Amanita velatipes (3/4 natural size). Cap hair-brown, or umber-brown, sometimes with tinge of lemon-yellow, or entirely maize-yellow. Scales, gills, and stem white. Copyright.

Figure 66. Amanita velatipes

Figure 66

Amanita velatipes. Three plants natural size, the left-hand one sectioned, showing stuffed center of stem. Others show how veil is ripped up from the stem. For other details see text. Copyright.

Some of the stages of development are illustrated in Figs. 64-67. The buttons are queer looking objects, the bulb being the most prominent part. It tapers abruptly below, and on the upper side is the small rounded young cap seated in the center. The volva is present as a rough floccose layer, covering the upper part of the bulb and the young cap. As the stem elongates and the pileus enlarges and expands, the volva is torn into areolate patches. The lower patches, those adjoining the margin of the cap and the upper part of the bulb, are separated in a more or less concentric manner. One or more of them lie on the upper part of the bulb, forming the "limb " of the "ocreate" volva. Others lie around the margin of the pileus. Sometimes an annular one bordering the pileus and bulb is left clinging part way up on the stem, as shown in Fig. 66. The concentric-arrangement on the pileus is sometimes shown for a considerable time, as in Fig. 67, the elongated areas being present in greater number at this age of the pileus. However, as the pileus expands more, these are separated into smaller areas and their connection with the surface of the pileus becomes less firm.

The formation of the veil and annulus can be easily followed in these figures. The margin of the cap in the button stage is firmly connected with the outer layer of the stem at its lower end. This probably occurs by the intermingling growth of the threads from the lower end of the stem and the margin of the cap, while the edges of the gills are quite free from the stem. Now as the stem elongates and the cap expands the veil is "ripped" up from the outer part of the stem. This is very clearly shown in Fig. 66, especially where two strips on the stem have become disconnected from the margin of the cap and are therefore left in position on the outside of the stem.

This species is related to A. excelsa Fr., which is said to have a superior ring.

Amanita cothurnata Atkinson. Probably Poisonous. - booted amanita, Amanita cothurnata, 1 have found in two different years in the Blue Ridge mountains at Blowing Rock, N. C, once in 1888, during the first week of September, and again during the three first weeks in September, 1899. It occurs sparingly during the first week or so of September, and during the middle of the month is very abundant. The species seems to be clearly distinct from other species of Amanita, and there are certain characters so persistent as to make it easily recognizable. It ranges in height from 7-12 cm. and the caps are 3 -7cm. or more broad, while the stems are 4-10 mm. in thickness. The entire plant is usually white, but in some specimens the cap has a tinge of citron yellow, or in others tawny olive, in the center.

The pileus is fleshy, and passes, in its development, from nearly globose to hemispherical, convex, expanded, and when specimens are very old sometimes the margin is elevated. It is usually white, though specimens are found with a tinge of citron yellow in the center, or of tawny olive in the center of other specimens. The pileus is viscid, strongly so when moist. It is finely striate on the margin, and covered with numerous, white, tloccose scales from the upper half of the volva, forming more or less dense patches, which may wash off in heavy rains. The gills are rounded next the stem, and quite remote from it. The edge of the gills is often eroded or frazzly from the torn out threads with which they were loosely connected to the upper side of the veil in the young or button stage. The spores are globose or nearly so, with a large " nucleus " nearly filling the spore.

The stem is cylindrical, even, and expanded below into quite a large oval bulb, the stem just above the bulb being margined by a close fitting roll of the volva, and the upper edge of this presenting the appearance of having been sewed at the top like the rolled edge of a garment or buskin. The surface of the stem is minutely floccose scaly or strongly so, and decidedly hollow even from a very young stage, or sometimes when young with loose threads in the cavity.