When we consider that about one-third of the improved land in Canada is under fodder and forage crops, the importance of disseminating information respecting fodder and pasture plants must be apparent to all. That the interest taken in these plants really is very great is amply illustrated by the numerous inquiries that have been received during recent years by the Department of Agriculture.
It is, therefore, the purpose of this book to provide, in a form convenient for reference, fairly comprehensive information about those grasses, clovers and other fodder and pasture plants that are generally acknowledged to be of value in Canada. The introduction into Canada from time to time of different fodder and pasture plants which are of more or less importance in different parts of Europe has induced the authors also to deal with a number of plants that are not as yet well known in Canada, but for some reason or other might prove in future to be of general or local value.
The aim of the book being to present only well-established facts and practices, no attempt has been made to advance or support new or questionable ideas or theories. It has been the endeavour to bring together only a summary of authentic information that may prove interesting and helpful to farmers, students of agriculture and others who may be interested in the development of the vast agricultural resources of Canada.
As the book has been written with the intention to make its contents intelligible to all classes of readers, the use of technical terms has been avoided as much as possible. It has, however, been found necessary to append a glossary in which technical or semi-technical terms contained in the text are listed.
In the introductory part of the book, the principal groups of fodder and pasture plants have been dealt with in a half-scientific way. The plants have been arranged chiefly in accordance with the system followed in the last edition of Gray's Manual of Botany.
The authors are greatly indebted to Leonard S. Klinck, B.S.A., Professor of Field Husbandry at Macdonald College, Que., who kindly consented to examine and criticise the manuscript, and to C. A. Zavitz, B.S.A., Professor of Field Husbandry at the Ontario Agricultural College at Guelph, who has given the authors much valuable information on fodder and pasture plants that are of interest to the province of Ontario. The helpful suggestions given by these well-known authorities have been most encouraging and are greatly appreciated.
Recognition for much arduous detail work in correcting the proof is due to Mr. E. D. Eddy, B.S.A. Miss A. L. Brown, who also compiled the quotations from old writings which are inserted where the space would otherwise be unoccupied, as the text is paged to suit the arrangement of the plates.
G. H. C.
M. O. M. M. B.
Without forage no cattle; without cattle no manure; without manure no crops.- Flemish Proverb,
Keep the dry provender which you have laid up for winter and think how long a winter it may be.- Cato, 95-46 B.C.
A. Furius Chresimus, a freedman, having found himself able, from a very small piece of land, to raise far more abundant harvests than his neighbours could from the largest farms, became the object of very considerable jealousy among them, and was accordingly accused of enticing away the crops of others by the practice of sorcery..............Apprehensive of being condemned, he had all his implements of husbandry brought into the Forum, together with his farm servants, robust, well-conditioned, and well clad people, Piso says. The iron tools were of first rate quality, the mattocks were stout and strong, the plough-shares ponderous and substantial, and the oxen sleek and in prime condition. When all this had been done, "Here, Roman citizens", said he, "are my implements of magic; but it is impossible for me to exhibit to your view, or to bring into this Forum, those midnight toils of mine, those early watchings, those sweats, and those fatigues." Upon this, by the unanimous voice of the people, he was immediately acquitted.- Pliny, Natural History, 23-79.