This section is from the book "Economical Cookery", by Marion Harris Neil. Also available from Amazon: Economical Cookery (1918).
First Stock. This stock is carefully made from uncooked bones and meat, suitably and nicely flavored, and is used for consommes, and all high-class soups.
Second Stock. This is made from the meat and bones from which the first stock has been strained, then recooked with fresh water and vegetables. It is used for soups that do not depend on the stock for their principal flavoring.
Household Stock. This stock is made from scraps of cooked or uncooked meat and bones, vegetables, and such other materials as the careful cook saves for the stock pot. It is used for everyday soups, and for sauces, or made-up dishes.
Vegetable Stock. This stock is made from vegetables alone, either fresh or dried, or a mixture of the two. It is much used in vegetarian and Lenten cookery.
Fish Stock. This stock is made from fish or fish trimmings, with vegetables added to give flavor. The addition of a few pieces of shellfish is an improvement. The stock is used for fish soup or sauces.
Game Stock. This is made from any kind of game bones and trimmings, with vegetables added to give flavor. It is used for game soups or sauces served with reheated dishes made with cold game.
Brown Stock. This is made principally from beef bones and beef, with sometimes a little veal or some poultry or game bones added, and usually flavored with vegetables.
White Stock. This is made principally from white meat, such as mutton, poultry, rabbit, or veal, with sometimes a calf's foot added, and usually flavored with vegetables and herbs.
Bone Stock is made from bones alone, with vegetables added to give flavor.
Glaze is stock which is so much reduced in quantity that when cold it forms almost a solid substance.
Cold water should be used for making stocks, as it extracts the juices better. Allow one quart to every pound of bones, meat, or vegetables. Do not add anything greasy, starchy, or highly colored. After cooking, strain into clean basins and allow to cool before setting away. When cold, remove all fat from the surface; this crust of fat, if allowed to remain over the top, is apt to turn it sour, as it excludes the air.