This section is from the book "The Epicurean", by Charles Ranhofer. Also available from Amazon: The Epicurean, a Complete Treatise of Analytical and Practical Studies on the Culinary Art.
Have one pound of flour, three quarters of a pound of butter, half a pint of cold water and half an ounce of salt. Sift the flour on a table, bring it all together and make a hollow in the center, spreading it with the hand, and in this space lay the butter, divided into small bits, half of the water and the salt; make a dough by mixing first the butter with the water, then drawing the flour into this wet part, a very little at the time, so as to obtain a paste neither lumpy nor too firm: if necessary, add the rest of the water, a very little at the time, mass it together, and knead it briskly two or three times. To knead dough is to put it in front of one, and push it little by little with the palms of both hands and pressing it hard against the table so as to get it smooth; after this is finished, bring it together again, detach carefully all the bits adhering to the table, and roll it into a ball with the hands, turning it in the left hand. Let the paste rest in the ice-box a quarter of an hour before using it.
Ordinary Foundation or Short Paste is made with one pound of flour, half a pound of butter, half a pint of water and a third of an ounce of salt. Make a hollow in the center of the flour, put into this the butter, salt and half of the water; work well the paste, adding more water, knead it properly, then roll it into a ball on a floured table; cover and let rest for one hour.
F/awn Paste. - One and one-quarter pounds of flonr, three-quarters pound of butter, a little salt, two tablespoonfuls of sugar, three or four egg-yolks; make the paste on the table, adding enough water so the paste will not be too firm; knead, bring together and leave to rest, being careful to cover it.
Arrange one pound of sifted flour in a circle on the table; in the center lay half a pound of butter, half a pound of sugar, the peel of a lemon, chopped very fine, a pinch of salt, one whole egg and four to five yolks. Work the whole well together to obtain a smooth paste, kneading it twice; form into a ball and put aside in the icebox to rest.