This section is from the book "The Epicurean", by Charles Ranhofer. Also available from Amazon: The Epicurean, a Complete Treatise of Analytical and Practical Studies on the Culinary Art.
An amphibious quadruped, having all its body, except the head, feet, and tail, covered with a very hard shell. It is enclosed in a cuirass composed of two pieces; the one covering the back is called the carapace; this is convex shaped; the vertebra are attached to it. The underneath one is attached to the breast; this is flat and is called the plastron. The choicest and most delicate part of the turtle is that attached to the upper shell.
Lard the fins of a turtle with calf's udder, braise them in a mirepoix stock (No. 419), moistened with Madeira, and when the turtle is cooked, take out the stock and put it into a flat saucepan with an equal quantity of espagnole sauce (No. 414); reduce and despumate; add some finely shreded green peppers, peeled and quartered tomatoes, Spanish olives stuffed with anchovies and fish quenelles (No. 90); glaze the turtle with meat glaze (No. 402), dress with the garnishing around, and serve.
Obtain a young turtle weighing ten pounds; remove and lard the meat with small lardons; clean well the carapace; braise the meats in a mirepoix stock (No. 419) with the belly shells, letting the meats be well cooked, and the braise stock reduced to half; transfer the meats to a vessel, strain the stock over and let it get cold. Cut the meats up into quarter inch squares, as well as the cutaneous parts from the belly. Fry in butter four ounces of onions cut in squares; sift over some flour, and moisten with the stock; add the turtle meat; stir the preparation until it comes to aboil, season and thicken with hard boiled egg-yolks mixed with an equal quantity of butter, and press through a fine sieve. Add some parsley and finely chopped raw mushrooms; then use this stew to fill up the carapace or deep shell; bestrew over with bread-raspings, besprinkle with butter and brown a nice color in a slow oven; serve when very hot.
Cut the turtle meat into one inch and a quarter squares; fry them in butter, and sprinkle over with flour, stir well, then moisten with broth, adding a bunch of parsley garnished with thyme and bay leaf, small onions, a piece of bacon cut into three-sixteenth inch squares, and mushrooms cut the same; season with salt, black and red pepper, this should not be confused with cayenne pepper, they are entirely different (No. 168); when the stew is done and ready to serve, pour in a little Madeira wine, suppress the parsley, reduce it properly and serve.