I pound 2 ounces of flour

I pound of butter

See that the flour is thoroughly dry, and then sift it. Squeeze the butter in a cloth to remove all moisture. Now put the butter in an enameled stewpan, and let it stand on the stove until it runs to oil. It is necessary to heat the oiled butter so that the scum will rise, but care must be taken that it does not get too hot. When all the scum has been removed, the stewpan should be put in a cooler part of the stove, so that the sediment may settle. Skim off the froth very carefully, and pour the oil in a basin, leaving the sediment at the bottom of the stewpan. Remove the sediment from the stewpan, and pour back the oil - now clarified butter - and sprinkle in the flour gradually, stirring all the time. Put the stewpan on a slow fire, turned low, and stir continually with a wooden spoon. Keep scraping the bottom of the pan to prevent mixture burning; be very careful about the scraping or the stirring, or the roux will be spoiled. As soon as the mixture begins to color a very little, put half of it into a jar for white roux. It must not turn more than a cream color, as it is intended to thicken white soups and white sauces. Now return the saucepan to the fire, and continue the stirring and scraping until the remaining roux has become a bright brown. Be careful that it does not get too dark; a light chocolate color is the correct shade. Immediately the roux is dark enough, remove it from the stove at once, but continue stirring for some minutes, as enameled stewpans retain the heat after they have been removed from the fire, and the mixture would burn if the stirring was discontinued at once. Have ready a large slice of onion, and throw it into the roux, if there is any fear that it is getting too dark; this checks the heat at once. This is brown roux for thickening brown soups and gravies. It will keep for weeks, and although the process seems rather troublesome, it really in the end saves time.

In using the roux it is best to scrape off the quantity you require with a spoon, and not add it to the soups and sauces in a lump.