The selection of stocks and propagation by budding and grafting are given in Chapter VII (Propagation By Budding And Grafting) and the transplanting, spacing, and after care in Chapters IX and X. The most important consideration in prairie propagation of the cherrry is that of selection of a hardy stock on which to bud or graft the hardiest known varieties. This is specially true north of the 42d parallel. As stated on prior page all varieties of the cherry take well by budding on our native bird-cherry (Prunus Pennsylvanica) (71. Some Native Stocks that Should be Used). At the experimental farm at Ottawa, Canada, during recent years, about the only cherry-trees that escaped root-killing were those on bird cherry-roots, and the same has been true in the prairie States. As Professor Bailey says, the bird cherry is quite a sprouter in its native localities. But when budded with the cultivated cherry we have seen but few sprouts on trees set twelve years in orchard. The draw on food-supply of the larger top and crops of larger fruit varieties seem to leave no reserve supply of nutriment for throwing up sprouts. But this only applies to the sections of our broad country where root-killing is frequent in open winters. Where the mazzard and mahaleb stocks are hardy they will continue to be the commercial stocks.

181. No Market Supply of the Cherry

As we now have varieties of good quality for dessert use or canning in about all parts of the Union it is a peculiar fact that our markets are not supplied except at a few local points, and in a small way in crates put up on the west coast for dessert use at prices beyond the reach of the masses. As Professor Bailey says: "The cherry is not cultivated as a leading industry east of the Rocky Mountains except in western New York, where the sour varieties are grown for canning. The sweet cherry is confined mostly to door-yard and fence-corner plantings. Sour kinds are found in orchard blocks in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, and Nebraska."

It is true that relatively small orchards are found in all these States. Yet it is also true that such orchards are far apart as a rule and the cherry is rarely found in market for family use, as is the case with all other orchard fruits. There is no reason for this, except that as yet the commercial planting of the cherry is neglected, especially west of the Great Lakes. Even in the small city of Ames, Iowa, fifty varieties of fine cherries were picked from healthy trees for exhibit at the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition at Omaha. Yet the local demand for family canning is so poorly supplied that cherries are engaged a year in advance by many families. But this was true of the blackberry supply five years ago, while at this time every grocery in the Northwest has its blackberry supply following that of the strawberry.

On hardy roots the identical varieties of the cherry used for roadside trees in Germany, north Silesia, Switzerland, and south Russia will mainly thrive as well in this country, and the writer repeats the desire of Charles Downing, who said nearly forty years ago: "We wish we could induce the planting of avenues of this fine-growing fruit tree in our country neighborhoods, as is the beautiful custom in Germany, affording ornament and a grateful shade and refreshment to the traveller at the same moment."