The cultivated varieties of the fruits and ligneous plants are far more variable when grown from seed than those nearer to Nature. In many cases they are crosses or hybrids and for generations have been planted intermingled with other varieties. If we plant the seeds of the Grimes Golden or Jonathan apples, we get an exceedingly varied lot of seedlings in leaf, bud, habit of growth, and fruit. Some of them will produce no larger nor better fruit than the Siberian crabs, and perhaps no seedling will bear fruit approaching the parents in size or quality. When propagated by budding, grafting, or cuttings of the top or roots, these choice old varieties are reproduced indefinitely with very slight individual variations. While this is the rule with cultivated trees and plants, we find some partial or entire exceptions. As examples, some of the Russian fruits, such as the Duchess apple and the Spate Morello cherry, come near to reproduction from seed, and the same is true of some peaches.

Among garden vegetables we have many varieties that have been so fixed by selection, and growing in isolated position, that they reproduce the variety very nearly true from seed, indefinitely, if kept apart from other varieties of the same species.