It is not easy to formulate rules in regard to distance apart of vines in plantation. Those familiar with our native varieties know that the Delaware with its relatively short growth will not require as much room as Moore's Early, which has longer internodes and requires longer pruning than most varieties. As a rule, the strong-growing Labrusca varieties should be planted ten feet apart in the rows and the rows should be ten feet apart. In the South such strong-growing varieties as Herbem ont, and the AEstivalis hybrids are planted twelve to fourteen feet apart in the rows and the rows nine feet apart.

In California, with the very short system of pruning on low stumps, the rows are planted eight feet apart each way. With increased experience, the tendency of recent plantings has been to plant far enough apart to give room for root-expansion and to give air movement and circulation both ways between the rows.

In planting, first-class one-year-old vines grown on selected soil (60. Spring-planted Cuttings) give the best results. As to depth of planting, the usual direction has been to plant about as deep as they stood in nursery. But increased experience now favors deeper planting. In the prairie States, and over the North, where root-killing of young vines is common, it is customary now to plant vines fully eighteen inches deep on dry soil. When planted, only about the usual covering is pressed down on the roots. As the season advances the holes are gradually filled in connection with the culture. With this deep planting, if the upper nitrogen-feeding roots are killed, the deeper water-feeding roots will sustain the plants until new surface roots are developed. This deep setting is now also gaining ground in California and the South. Where vineyards are started in the raisin-producing sections of California and Arizona, the cuttings are stuck two feet deep, and Mr. Gustaf Eisen of Fresno states: "For trial I planted some cuttings of raisin grapes five feet deep, and they were at one year old several times larger than those set two feet deep, and bore fruit the first summer." In this deep setting of cuttings or vines the lower part sends out rootlets which extend growth still deeper in soil not too wet. But the surface roots are sent out in proper position. The gain is merely in the first year's growth, as when set in the ordinary way the deep roots will be extended in due time.