It is stated above that cover-crops cannot be used in vineyards. This is true in practice, as the shading of the soil by growing crops is in the way of needed summer care and it favors rot and other fungoid diseases. It is also true that the general belief in all parts of the Union is, and has been, that the bare, well-tilled soil is needed by the heat-loving grape-vine. But facts do not warrant the latter belief. In Nature the American wild species grow to greater perfection where the roots are shaded by tree- and plant-growth and by the leaves and leaf-mould. That at least some of our best varieties need shade of roots from the sun in the heated period is shown by the fact that the Delaware, with bare surface culture, is a failure in Iowa. But when the space between the rows is quite deeply covered with sorghum bagasse or prairie hay, it shows healthy foliage and bears full crops of as perfect fruit as is grown, where it is a favorite commercial variety. In the perhaps distant future it no doubt will be found advantageous to cultivate early in the season, and when the time for mildew and black rot comes have the bare soil covered with some low-growing leguminous growth, such as burr clover or our small-growing vetches.