On rich ground the black caps and purple-cane varieties, and also the reds grown, as they should be, in stools, should be staked or supported on both sides by wires on low stakes. Stakes, if kept in the dry when not in use, are durable and the expense of staking is not as great as is usually suspected. Fuller says: "The cost of stakes is less than two cents each, and I cannot afford to grow raspberries without staking, because every stake will save on an average ten cents' worth of fruit, and in many instances three times that amount." In the East, chestnut stakes are mostly used, and in the West, cedar stakes sawed out for this use in Tennessee are not much more expensive than pine, and the same is true of nursery and fruit-tree label stakes from Tennessee.

In Europe the plan of staking is shown in Fig. 78, with bearing wood tied to the stakes and the new canes growing up between the stakes.

European plan of staking the raspberry.

Fig. 78. - European plan of staking the raspberry.

The culture is usually only one way. The rows are about six feet apart and the bearing stools should be from two to four feet apart, depending on the variety as to vigor of growth.

The sprouting kinds are planted about two feet apart in the rows and the sprouts that come up are treated as weeds. But some care is needed from year to year in the way of taking out the suckers from the stools where they are too thick and preserving them where too thin. In practice the stools are not permanent in position, as the strong suckers will not always be found on both sides alike, so the stools change position about every year.

The black-cap varieties, and such purple canes as Shaffer and Ellisdale, are more permanent in position and make a broader extension of stool. Hence the rows should be at least two feet further apart than the sprouting varieties.