Chapter IX (Transplanting Fruits And Ornamentals) of this volume gives some of the essentials of transplanting of fruits and ornamentals in connection with nursery-grown trees. It also discusses the relative success of fall and spring planting (117. Fall- or Spring-planting). In lawn and park planting, as well as in planting street trees for shade, it is quite general in most localities to procure them from the timber. Nursery-grown ornamental and shade trees are given a better root system by transplanting in nursery when young or by cutting the tap-roots with a spade or tree-digger, run under them. The young forest trees have deep, extending roots, with relatively few fibrous surface roots that are obtainable in digging. But with needed care in digging, with proper depth and spread of roots, trees of medium size can be safely planted in the spring when the buds are beginning to swell.

If larger trees are wanted for certain positions it will prove most profitable to move them in the winter. A trench not less than three feet deep is dug around the trees, extending under at the base and including a ball of earth not less than three feet in diameter, late in the fall. Before the ground freezes the holes are also dug for the reception of the trees and filled with straw or coarse manure. When the balls in which the roots are encased are frozen hard, the use of a lever loosens them, when they are lifted with block and tackle on trucks or sleds and drawn to their new position.

The usual belief seems to be that the transplanting of trees with stems two to three inches in diameter is very expensive work. But the digging is not skilled labor, and an improvised derrick, block and tackle, and a sliding platform to run on snow were all the appliances used three years ago in moving about one hundred trees, deciduous and evergreen, on a part of the Iowa Agricultural College campus, that had been for years in vineyard. In planting, moist dirt from ground covered with strawy manure was used for filling tightly around the frozen ball, and the tops were prevented from swaying in the wind by wires attached to stakes driven in the ground. No pruning of the tops was done, except on the large pines, which were cut back quite severely at the points of growth (153. Pruning and Shaping Evergreens). Only two trees were lost out of near one hundred planted. 306. The Need of Hardy Trees and Shrubs. - The main purpose of these brief notes on home surroundings has been to give some practical hints on the location of trees and shrubs on the home grounds of the farmer and suburban residents of moderate means. The large places and parks are usually cared for by those who make it a business. The importance of impressing the need of planting the hardiest known shrubs and trees, on home grounds, school grounds, and cemeteries specially, cannot be overrated. Even as far south as Atlanta, Georgia, Jacksonville, Florida, and Hot Springs, Arkansas, the visitor in the summer of 1895 saw more crippled or dead fruit trees, ornamental trees, and shrubs than ever has been seen in the Northern States. The cemeteries over the whole South showed a few perfect varieties and species that seemed to be more beautiful than ever standing amid the desolation wrought by the cold on the more tender species of the south and west Europe. After what are known as the "test winters," this loss of trees on private grounds and in cemeteries and parks is found not only in the prairie States, but east of the lakes and in the South. Hence the writer's respect for such trees and shrubs as Cut-leaved birch, Silver spruce (Picea pungens), Duchess apple, Concord grape, Spiroea Van Houttei, and Rosa rugosa, that are safe to plant on varied soils in nearly all parts of the Union.

In the succeeding chapter (Some Of The Leading Shade, Lawn, And Park Trees) some of the ornamental and shade trees and shrubs are noted in connection with their relative hardiness, as observed during the past forty years by the writer.