About all the orchard fruits of the temperate zone throw up suckers from the surface-roots, especially if wounded by the plow or spade. Popularly they are called sprouts, but these more properly are the shoots that come from the crown and not from the surface-roots.
Over Europe these suckers are taken up, sorted as to size, and the grades planted separately in nursery. After standing in nursery from one to three years, depending on size, and shaped by pruning, they are ready for orchard planting or planting by the roadside. Nearly or quite ail of the roadside cherry-, plum-, and apple-trees of Germany and Russia are grown from suckers. A main difficulty in the United States is that our fruit-trees are not on their own roots as a rule, yet a larger proportion of our crown-grafted stone fruits have rooted from the scion than is usually suspected, where planted moderately deep on dry soil. This is specially true of the cherry crown-grafted on mazzard and set down to the top bud of the scion in nursery and still deeper in orchard. A comparison of the bud and leaf of the sprouts and branches of the tree will soon tell the story. The plum, also root-grafted and set deep in nursery and deeper in orchard, is soon on own roots.
The ornamental trees and shrubs that sprout from the crown, like the juneberry and flowering almond, will also form roots in nursery if taken off with care close to the crown of the parent. They will also take root if mounded for one year before taking up.