This old European mode of budding is coming into use in this country in changing the top of mulberry, fig, walnut, chestnut, and oak. A ring of bark two inches long is peeled from the stock and thrown away. A similar ring is peeled from the variety wanted and fitted in the opening. To get a fit, it is usual to cut the ring to be fitted from a shoot a little larger than the stock and then paring with a sharp knife. The top is not cut back the same season. When cut back in the dormant period the cut surface is waxed. The buds on the inserted ring make vigorous growth the next season. Fig. 41 shows the ring when replaced on the stock. While uniting it is safest to bind moist clay over the whole surface of the ring. In this way the writer has known the chestnut to be budded on white oak and the lilac on green ash. 78. Grafting. - There is no essential difference in principle between budding and grafting. In both cases the bud of the variety we wish to propagate is united to the stock from which it develops growth. But in grafting we usually use more than one bud attached to the wood on which they grew. A main difference in favor of grafting is that it can be used on a greater number of species in the dormant period, while budding is confined to the season when the bark will peel. Many modes of grafting are used by amateurs, especially in Europe, but aside from those described in this chapter they have no practical value except with the curious in special cases.

A number of machines and appliances have been invented and patented for grafting, but in practice, so far as known to the writer, the hand work gives the safest and surest results. As in budding all methods of grafting are used to perpetuate varieties which cannot be profitably grown from cuttings of new wood or roots, or by division.

Ring budding

Fig. 41. Ring-budding.