Seed-testing indoors is not wholly satisfactory, as the conditions are more favorable than in the soil of the open field or garden. The best test for the amateur or commercial planter is probably in quite deep earthen dishes placed in the greenhouse or a warm living-room or kitchen. But the test should be continued until the plantlet shows the true leaves and a system of roots for taking up nutriment from the soil. The simple sprouting of seeds is no satisfactory test of their vitality, as many seeds will sprout that are not capable of forming perfect plants. What is commercially called seed-testing is simply sprouting the samples. The number of seeds that sprout are counted. The experiment stations and seed-dealers have several kinds of apparatus for this use, in which the moisture and temperature are so controlled that a seed with low vitality will sprout feebly that never can develop true leaves or roots. As Bailey says : "The sprouting-test is almost wholly an attempt to arrive at a numerical estimate of the sample rather than an effort to determine the relative strength of germinating power," With home-saved seeds kept as outlined under the head of Seed-saving (4. Seed-saving) tests of vitality are not needed. But with commercial seeds the dish test, carried on to perfect leaf-development, is often a time- and money-saving process.