Much has been said and written during recent years in regard to piece roots and whole roots in apple-root grafting. As noted (47. Commercial Stocks) many of the commercial stocks used are not hardy in some parts of the Union. In mild climates the use of the whole root, or at least the upper part of the seedling root, will give stronger growth the first year the root-grafts are set in nursery. But experience has shown that when a given variety is grown from a cutting, or a cutting grafted on a very short piece of root to favor starting growth, the trees are as thrifty and long lived as when grown by budding or grafting on a whole root. Where tender roots are liable to root-killing, as in the prairie States, there is a great gain in vising a scion eight inches long on a piece of root two or three inches long. Such root-grafts set in nursery down to the top bud usually root from the scion in the nursery rows, and if they fail to do so they will root when set four or five inches deeper in orchard. With the apple ordinary seedling-roots give on an average two to three sections for grafting. But with the pear, cherry, and plum, only the upper part of the seedling is used and the scion is inserted at the crown.