This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
Large: stem green, 5-6 ft.: leaves broad-oblong, acute: flowers in an elongated raceme or sometimes paniculate; sepals lanceolate, 3/4in. long, pale purple; petals linear-lanceolate, 1 1/2 in. long, erect, pale purple; staminodia
3 in. long, emarginate, bright red; lip emarginate, yellow. Himalayas. B.M.2317. B.R. 1276. C. chinensis, Willd. (C. nepalensis, Wall.), differs in having reflexed petals.
stem slender, glabrous, 3-4 ft.: leaves ovate-oblong, a foot or more long: raceme lax, simple or forked, the bracts oblong; sepals oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, 1/2in. or less long, pale green and rose-tinted; petals lanceolate, acuminate, 1 1/2 in. long, pale rose; upper staminodia 2 1/2 in. or less long, bright red, often emarginate; lip red-yellow: caps, globose and very small. Malaysian tropics.
ee. Infloresence much-branched; flowers purple.
stem tall and very slender: leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acute: flowers (often in pairs) in a long, much-branched panicle, the bracts nearly orbicular; sepals lanceolate, 1/2in. long; petals long-lanceolate and unequal, acuminate, the longest about 2 1/2 in., purple; staminodia acute, scarcely longer than the petals; lip oblanceolate, scarlet-spotted. Brazil.
aaa. Petal-like staminodia 3 (exception in No. 18). B. Leaves lanceolate: flowers mostly yellow or orange. c. Petals deflexed.
stem green and glabrous, 4-6 ft., very leafy below: leaves ovate-lanceolate to narrowly elliptic, acute, green: raceme simple, lax and few-fid., the bracts very small; sepals lanceolate or oblong, acuminate, 1 in. long, green; petals broadly linear-lanceolate to obovate and reflexed, to 3 in. long (as is also the tube); staminodia obovate, sulfur-yellow, 2-3 in. long by 1 1/2 in. broad; lip large, yellow. Swamps S. C. to Fla., near the coast. L.B.C. 6:562. G.W. 12, p. 253. - Useful for its good habit and irislike flowers C. Reevesii, Lindl., of India and the Philippines, has the outside staminodia acute rather than all obtuse or emarginate as in C. flaccida, and flowers less than
4 in. across rather than about 6 in. across. B.R. 2004.
stem green and glaucous, 4-5 ft.: leaves oblong or ovate-elliptic and acute, bright green: raceme few-fid. and rather dense, the bracts green and oblong; sepals oblong, 1/3in, green; petals lanceolate, acuminate, greenish yellow, l 1/2-2 in.; staminodia obtuse and entire (or 2-lobed at apex), 2-3 in., yellow; lip linear, strongly reflexed, yellow, mottled red: caps, large. Mex. and Cent. Amer.
stem tall, slender, green and glaucous, 5-6 ft.: leaves oblong-lanceolate, green and glaucous, 1-2 ft. long and 3-4 in. broad: flowers in a many-flowered long raceme, with a hairy rachis and long-spreading pedicels, the bracts small, oblong and obtuse; sepals oblong, small and green; petals linear-lanceolate, greenish yellow, reflexed, 2 in. long; staminodia emarginate, about 2 in. long, pale yellow; lip oblanceolate, yellow: caps, globose, small. W. Indies, S. Amer. B.M. 2323. L.B.C. 7:622.
cc. Petals erect.
stem green and glaucous, 5-6 ft., from a long and stoloniferous rhizome: leaves green and glaucous, oblong-lanceolate and very acute, tapering both ways (the middle of the blade 4-6 in. wide), white-margined: raceme lax, simple or forked; sepals ovate-obtuse, green, 1/2in. long; petals linear - lanceolate, yellow-green, 1 1/2 - 2 in.; staminodia entire, 2 1/2-3 in., yellow, not spotted; lip linear or obovate-oblong, emarginate, pale yellow: caps, oblong, 1 1/2-2 in. long. W. Indies, S. Amer. variety rubro-lutea, Hort., has flowers deep yellow tinted red, or in some portraits represented as deep purple. B.M. 3437. C. longifolia, Bouche, from Mex. and Cent. Amer., has the petals all free, whereas they are united in a tube in C. glauca, and with curved sulfur-yellow flowers C. leucocarpa, Bouche, S. Amer., has petals united into a short tube, the flowers small, pale orange with broad leafy style. C. violacea, Bouche, habitat unknown, has petals united in short tube, flowers violet, strongly gaping, plant deciduous-woolly above.
bb. Leaves broadly oblong or elliptic: rhizome tuberous.
c. Plant low or medium in height (mostly 5 ft. or less).
d. Staminodia entire at apex.
(C. patens, Roscoe. C. crocea, Hort. C. tenuiflora and C. spectabilis, Bouche. C. coccinea, Link). Indian Shot. stem slender, glabrous, green, 3-5 ft.: leaves oblong and acute, green, not glaucous, half as broad as long (1-1 1/2 ft-long): racemes simple or very nearly so and lax, some of the flowers in pairs, the bracts green and nearly orbicular; flowers small; sepals oblong and green, 1/4in. long; petals lanceolate, pale green, about 1 1/2 in. long; upper staminodia bright red, entire, 2 in. long but narrow; lip linear, red-yellow, minutely spotted with red: caps, globose, 1 in. diam. W. Indies, Cent. and S. Amer. Naturalized in parts of southern states. B.M. 454. B.R. 776. L.B.C. 17:1693.
stem slender, green, 4-5 or sometimes 6 ft.: leaves oblong, or oblong-lanceolate, and acute: raceme simple and lax, with small green, orbicular bracts; sepals lanceolate, 1/2in- or less long, green tinged with red; petals lanceolate. acuminate, 1 1/2 in. long, pale scarlet; staminodia 2, long and narrow, mostly emarginate; lip yellow-spotted: caps. globose and small. W. Indies, Cent. and S. Amer. C. formosa, Bouche, Brazil, has 3 unlike staminodia.
dd. Staminodia 2-lobed.