This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
Water Hickory. Bitter Pecan. Usually small tree, rarely to 100 ft., with light brown bark separating into long, thin plates: winter-buds dark reddish brown: leaflets 7-13, sessile or short-stalked, lanceolate, long-acuminate, finely serrate, yellowish tomentose when young, glabrous at length: fruit 3-4, ovoid to broadly obovate, 1-11/2- in. long; husk thin, splitting to the base; nut obovate, much compressed, irregularly angled and ridged, dull reddish brown; kernel very bitter. From Va. to 111., south to Fla. and Texas. S.S. 7:344-5. U.S.N.C. 12, 7-8.
Bitternut. Swamp Hickory. Tree, to 100 ft.: bark grayish brown, broken into thin scales: young branches and petioles glabrous: winter-buds bright yellow: leaflets 5-9, ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, acuminate, densely serrate, pubescent when young and glandular, almost glabrous at length, 3-6 in. long: fruit
2-3, broadly obovate or subglobose, winged from the apex to the middle, 3/4-1 1/2 in. long; husk thin, splitting somewhat below the middle; nut slightly compressed, roundish, abruptly contracted into a short point, smooth, gray; kernel bitter. Que. to Minn., south to
Fla. and Texas. S.S. 7:340-1. Em. 226. - A valuable park tree, with handsome rather broad head, growing in cult, more rapidly than other hickories.
AA. Scales of buds imbricate, more than 6: fruit not or slightly winged at the sutures; nut usually thick-shelled, 4-celled below: leaflets 3-9, not falcate, the uppermost larger and generally obovate.
B. Buds small 1/4= 1/2 in. long: husk thin; nut slightly or not angled.
C. Leaves glabrous or only slightly pubescent while young: nut not or only slightly angled, thin-shelled.
Pignut. Figs. 824, 825. Tree, occasionally to 120 ft., with usually dark gray fissured bark and slender, glabrous branchlets: leaflets 3-7, almost sessile, oblong to oblong-lanceolate, long-acuminate, sharply serrate, almost glabrous, 3-6 in. long: fruit usually ovoid or obovate, the sutures usually slightly winged toward the apex and the husk splitting mostly only half way to the base; nut usually brownish, not angled; kernel mostly astringent. Maine to Ont. and south to Fla., Ala. and Miss. S.T.S. 2:179. A.G. 11:386-7. U.S.N. C. 12, 5. - Avery handsome park tree, with rather narrow-oblong head, and slender often pendulous branch-lets. A very variable tree.
Fig. 824. Characteristic growth of the pignut hickory, Carya glabra.
Fig. 825. One form of pignut-C. glabra. (Natural size.)
Small Pignut. False Shagbark. Figs. 826-829. Tree, similar to the preceding: bark close and furrowed on young trees, shaggy on old trunks: branches first hairy, soon glabrous: leaflets 5-7, sessile, oval, oblong or ovate, 3-6 in. long, acute or acuminate, rounded or narrowed and unequal at the base, coarsely and shallowly toothed, glabrous; terminal leaflets cuneate at the base, short-stalked: fruit subglobose to short-oblong, 3/4-1 in. across, densely scaly and slightly winged, tardily splitting nearly to the base; nut slightly flattened, often broader than high and usually rounded at the apex, sometimes slightly angular, brownish, shell rather thin; kernel small and sweet. Mass. to Wis., south to Ga., Ala., and Miss. A.G. 11:381-388, 1, 2, 5, 8, 10. U.S.N.C. 12,4, 6. variety obcordata, Sarg. (J. obcordata, Muhl. J. porcina variety obcordata, Pursh. C. microcarpa, Darl.). fruit nearly globose or ovoid; nut angled, broader than high, sometimes obcordate. S.S. 7: 354, figs. 5, 6, 7, 9. variety odor-ata, Sarg. (Hicoria glabra variety odorata, Sarg.). leaflets generally broader, ovate or oblong-ovate, glandular: fruit subglobose or higher than broad, with distinctly winged sutures, splitting freely to the base; nut gray, very slightly ridged, slightly higher than broad.
Conn, to Pa. and Mo. S.S.
Fig. 826. Fruit of C. ovalis, the false shagbark.
Fig. 827. Carya ovalis, the false shagbark.
Fig. 828. Twig of C. ovalis.
Fig. 829. Habit of the small-fruited pignut, Carya ovalis.
7:354, fig. 8. variety obovalis, Sarg. fruit obovoid; nut much compressed, pointed or rounded at the apex, and rounded at the base. Mass. to Va. and Mo. variety borealis, Sarg. (Hicoria borealis, Ashe. C. borealis, Schneid.). Bark scaly: leaflets usually 5, lanceolate: fruit ovoid, flattened, about 3/4 in. long, very narrowly winged and often incompletely splitting; nut ovoid, ridged, whitish; kernel sweet. Mich., Ont. B.T. 236.
cc. Leaves hairy beneath: nut angled, thick-shelled.
Tree, to 20 or sometimes to 50 ft.: branch-lets slender, pubescent mixed with silvery scales, later glabrous: leaflets 5-9, usually 7, sessile or short-stalked, oblong to oblanceolate, 3-5 in. long, acuminate, narrowed at the base, coarsely serrate, when unfolding glandular above, hairy below and with silvery scales; petioles pubescent and with tufts of brownish hairs, finally often glabrous: fruit subglobose to pear-shaped, 3/4-l 3/4 in. long, winged; husk thin, splitting to below the middle or nearly to the base; nut slightly angled, somewhat compressed, thick-shelled, pale or light brown; kernel small and sweet. N. J. to Fla., Miss, and E. Texas. S.S. 7:355. G.F. 10:305.
bb. Buds large, 1/2-1 in. long: nut angled; kernel sweet.
c. Bark not shaggy: branches and petioles tomentose: outer bud-scales falling in autumn: husk not separating quite to the base.