This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
(Greek for downward or backward, and bristle). Orchidacese. Epiphytic or terrestrial orchids, requiring hothouse conditions.
Stems short fusiform: leaves plaited, membranaceous: scapes basal; flowers in racemes, globose or expanded; labellum fleshy; column erect, provided with sensitive appendages which, when touched, cause the pollen-masses to fly out; pollinia 2. The genus includes Mon-achanthus and Myanthus. - There are about 50 or 60 species in the American tropics.
The flowers are in racemes or spikes, firm in texture, and white or in shades of green, yellow, brown or purple. Catasetums are not much cultivated, since most of the species are not showy, but they are interesting to the botanist and amateur because of the striking ejection of the pollen-masses. Gardeners often have trouble with catasetums, but they are not difficult to grow if given good care. They need a high temperature, long period of rest, and free supply of water during the growing season. They are grown in both pots and baskets. Readily propagated by dividing the plants at the base; also from very ripe pseudobulbs cut in pieces and put in sand. For culture, see Orchids.
a. Flowers white. Bungerdthii, N. E. Br. stems 8-9 in. tall: sepals larger than the petals, nearly 2 in. long; labellum tending toward concave, roundish; appendages thickish. Ecuador. B.M. 6998. G.C. III. 1:142. I.H. 37:117; 34:10. Gn. 33:388. A.F. 6:633-A striking plant.
Rich. (C. Cldveringi, Lindl. C. triden-tatum, Hook.). Flowers large, nearly 3 1/2 in. across; petals and sepals yellow, verging on green, spotted with reddish brown; labellum yellow. Guiana. B.M. 2559, 3329. I.H. 33:619. variety rubrum, Hort. Ared-flowered form.
Lindl. & Paxt. Pseudobulbs 2-3 in. long: raceme pendulous, 8- or more-flowered; flowers 2 1/2 in. across; sepals whitish or pale yellow, closely barred with red. Brazil. B.M. 7158. A.F. 6:609. variety aureum, Hort. Flowers pale green, slightly marked with rose, center of lip deep golden yellow.
Lindl. Pseudobulbs deflexed: leaves narrow and glaucous, reaching 3 ft.: flowers on drooping, compact spikes; sepals and petals greenish yellow tipped with dull red; lip helmet-like, orange-yeflow. Guiana. -Epiphyte.
aaa. Flowers essentially red or brownish.
Reichb. f. Flowers 1 1/2 in. across; sepals and petals lanceolate; red-brown and spotted; Up saccate, yellowish outside and red-brown inside. Venezuela. A.F. 6:609.
aaaa. Flowers many-colored, grotesque.
Gnomus, Andre Pseudobulb oblong-ovate and alternate, articulated: flowers in a long loose raceme on slender pedicels; sepals greenish and purple-barred; 2 lateral petals spreading, concave, purple; lip bluntly conical, olive-green spotted outside, ivory-white within, fringed above. S. Amer. I.H. 24:270. A.F. 12:293.
C. barbatum, Lindl. Flowers green, blotched with purple. Guiana. -C. callosum, Lindl. Odd: flowers with chocolate-brown, narrow-lanceolate sepals and petals; lip greenish, speckled with red. Venezuela. B.M. 4219, 6648. - C. Christyinum, Reichb. f. Sepals and petals usually chocolate; lip greenish yellow, purple fringed. S. Amer.(?). G.C. III. 18:617. B.M. 8007. - C. Claesianum, Lind. & Cogn. Flowers greenish yellow; lip fringed along sides. Brazil. G.C. III. 44:211. - C. Cliftonii, Hort. Probably a form of C. Bungero-thii. G.M. 54:593 (desc.). - C. Colmaniae, Hort. Fine yellow flower with 3-lobed lip stained with deep crimson. - C. discolor, Lindl. Flowers purple. An old sort, now rarely seen. Brazil. - C. ebUrneum, Rolfe.
Flowers ivory-white; sac of lip deep yellow. Colombia-C. Garnettia-num, Rolfe. Allied to C. barbatum. Fis. small; sepals and petals very narrow, green, with large bars of red-brown; lip white, fringed. Amazon. B.M. 7069. - C. imperiale, Lind. & Cogn. Sepals and petals ovate-acute, white, purple-spotted; lip orbicular-cordate, purple in center and white-margined. G.C. III. 17:329. S.H. 1, p. 369. J.H. III. 30:25. - C. labiatum, Rodr. Scapes 1 1/2 ft.
long, the male 10-flowered, female 2-flowered Organ Mts. C. Lindeni, Cogn. Flowers large (as of C. Bungerothii); sepals and petals yellow, with purplish spots and bars; lip yellow, spotted at base. G.C. III. 17: 329. S.H. 1, p. 369. - C. maculatum, Kunth. Sepals acuminate, spotted with claret; petals broader, red-blotched; lip yellowish green outside, dark brown within. Colombia and Nicaragua. - C. mirdbile, Cogn. Flowers very large, the sepals and petals oblong-lanceolate, and yellowish, with purple spots and bars; lip kidney-shaped, bright yellow with 2 purple spots, toothed. C.C. III. 17: 329. S.H. 1, p. 369. - C. monodon, Kranzl. Spike long with 6-8 greenish flowers; lip flat, with fringes along border. Brazil. G.C. III. 35:354 (desc). - C. pileatum, Reichb., variety aureum, Hort. Flowers creamy white, shaded with greenish yellow. G.M. 47:829, 831. - C. quadridens, Rolfe. Flowers with pair of short, acute teeth situated at lower angles of abortive stigma. - C. Rhamphastos, Hort. Raceme few-fid., up to 10 in. long; flowers pale green. Andes of Colombia. - C. Scurra, Reichb. f.
Compact: flowers fragrant, yellowish white, green-veined; lip 3-lobed. Guiana. G.C. II. 7:304-5. - C. spind-sum, Lindl. (Myanthus spinosus, Hook.). Lip spreading, with succulent hairs, bearing on upper side at base an erect 3-partite spine and a much larger one below the acumen. Brazil. B.M. 3802. -C. splendens, Cogn. Intermediate between C. Bungerothii and C. macrocarpum. Sepals greenish white with purplish center; petals white with many purple spots; lip cream-color, purple-marked. Runs into many forms: variety Album, Lind. & Cogn., white or nearly so. variety Alicix, Lind. & Cogn. Flowers large; sepals and petals purplish; lip white, toothed. variety aureo-maculdtum. Bossch. Yellow. I.H. 43:54. variety atropurpilreum. Hort. Blackish purple. - C. tenebrd-sum, Kranzl. Flowers almost black, very spreading. Peru. G.C. III. 48:229 (desc). - A. Tracyanum, Hort. A provisional name for a distinct species with whitish green flowers - C. viridi-flavum, Hook. Flowers green, the lip conic, yellow inside.
Cent. Amer. B.M.4017. - C. Warscewiczii, Lindl. & Paxt. From Panama. Now rarely seen.
Oakes Ames. L. H. B.