(Kedros, ancient Greek name). Pinacese. Cedar. Trees grown for their persisting foliage and striking habit; they are also valuable timber trees.

Large evergreen trees, with quadrangular, stiff, fasciculate leaves: flowers monoecious, the staminate forming cylindrical catkins: cones ovate or ovate-oblong, thick, 3-5 in. long, with broad, closely i m b r i c a t e , bracts, attaining maturity in 2 or 3 years; seeds winged. - Three closely allied species in N. Africa, Asia Minor and Himalayas.

The cedars are large ornamental conifers, with wide-spreading branches, very distinct in habit from most other conifers. They are usually considered tender, but a hardy race of Cedrus Libani has been recently introduced by the Arnold Arboretum from the highest elevation where the species occurs in Asia Minor; the plants have stood all the winters since 1902 unprotected at the Arnold Arboretum and have proved perfectly hardy. It is very gratifying that one is now able to grow so far north the famous cedar of Lebanon which, aside from its beauty, is of peculiar interest for its historic and religious associations. The race of Cedrus Libani commonly cultivated is rather tender, more tender than C. atlantica which may be grown as far north as New York in sheltered positions, while C. Deodara can be grown safely only in California and southern states. The very durable and fragrant wood of all species is highly valued.

The cedars prefer well-drained, loamy soil, and will also grow in sandy clay, if there is no stagnant moisture. Propagated by seeds sown in spring; the varieties by veneer grafting, in late summer or in fall, on seedlings of C. atlantica; or, in warmer regions, on C.

Deodara; they grow also from cuttings, if the small shoots are selected which spring occasionally from the old wood. Plants of this genus are the true cedars; but trees of other genera are often called cedar. See Chamaecyparis, Junipenis, and Thuya; also Cedrela.

A. Branches stiff, not drooping: cones truncate, and often concave at the apex. atlantica, Manetti. Fig. 850. Large, pyramidal tree, to 120 ft., with upright leading shoots: leaves mostly less than 1 in. long, usually thicker than broad, rigid, glaucous green: cones 2-3 in. long, light brown. N. Africa Gng. 2:163. G. F. 9:417. R.H. 1890, p. 32. G. W. 6, p. 498. Gn. 37, p. 195. Gt. 61, p. 449. variety glauca, Carr. Foliage glaucous, with silvery hue; a very desirable and vigorous form. Gng. 8: 275. variety fas-tigiata, Carr. Of upright columnar habit. R.H. 1890, p. 32.

Cedrus atlantica.

Fig. 850. Cedrus atlantica.

Libani, Loud. Fig. 851. Large tree, with wide-spreading, hori-zontal branches, forming a broad head when older, leading shoot nodding: leaves 1 in. or longer, broader than thick, dark or bright green, sometimes bluish or silvery: cones 3-4 in. long, brown. Lebanon, Taurus, S. Anatolia and N. Africa Gng. 5:65.

Mn. 1:39. G.F. 8:335; 2:149 (adapted in Fig. 851).

Cedars on Mt. Lebanon, Cedrus Libani.

Fig. 851. Cedars on Mt. Lebanon, Cedrus Libani.

Gn. 48, p. 237; 66, pp. 124-5, 178. G.C. III. 34:265.

F.S.R. 2, pp. 291-4. variety brevifolia, Hook. With shorter leaves and smaller cones. Cyprus. variety glauca, Carr.

(variety argentea, Veitch). Foliage of blue or silvery hue.

Variety nana, Loud. Dwarf form.

aa. Branches and leading shoot pendulous: cones obtuse.

Deodara, Loud. Tall tree, of pyramidal habit, to 150 ft.: leaves 1-2 in. long, dark bluish green, rigid, as thick as broad: cones 3 1/2-5 in. long, reddish brown. Himalayas. Gng. 2:8. G.C. III. 25:139; 34:400. F. 1876, p. 103. Gn. 28, p. 223. V. 20:185. variety robusta, Carr. Leaves about 2 in. long, rigid. variety pendula, Beissn. (variety recurvdta pendula, Hort.). With long pendulous branches or prostrate if not supported. G.W. 14, p. 413. variety fastigiata, Carr. Of columnar habit. variety verticillata, Rehd. (variety verticillata glauca, Tutenberg). A compact form with the leaves whorled at the base of the shoots: foliage bluish white: the hardiest form of the species. G.W. 11, p. 89. variety viridis, Knight. Leaves

bright green. variety argentea, Carr. Foliage of silvery-hue. variety nivea, Annesley. Young growth white. G.C. III. 25:399. variety albo-spica, Annesley (variety dlbo-spicata, Beissn.). Young growth green, becoming later white at the tips. G.W. 11, p. 89. variety auxea, Beissn. Foliage golden yellow. G.W. 11, p. 87.

Alfred Rehder.