This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
(Greek chainein, to gape, to split, and melea, apple: the fruit was supposed by Thunberg to split into five valves). Rosdceae, subfamily Pomese. Woody plants, grown chiefly for their handsome brightly colored flowers appearing early in spring; formerly commonly included in Cydonia.
Shrubs or small trees, sometimes spiny: leaves sub-persistent or deciduous, alternate, short-petioled, serrate: flowers solitary or fascicled, before or after the leaves, sometimes partly staminate; calyx-lobes entire or serrate; petals 5; stamens numerous; styles 5, connate at the base: fruit 5-celled, each cell with many seeds. - Four species in China and Japan. See page 3567.
These are ornamental plants, nearly hardy North except C. sinensis, which can be grown only South. C. japonica and C. Maulei, with handsome glossy foliage and abundant flowers in early spring, varying in all shades from pure white to deep scarlet, are highly decorative, and especially adapted for borders of shrubberies and for low ornamental hedges. The fruit of all species can be made into conserves. They thrive in almost any soil, but require sunny position to bloom abundantly. Propagated by seeds, usually stratified and sown in spring; also readily increased by root-cuttings made in fall or early spring, and rarer kinds or less vigorous-growing varieties are grafted in the greenhouse in early spring, on stock of the Japanese or common quince; they grow also from cuttings of half-ripened or nearly mature wood, under glass, and from layers.
A. Flowers solitary, with reflexed serrate calyx-lobes, with or after the leaves: stipules small. (Pseudocydonia.)
Koehne (Pyrus sinensis, Poir. Cydonia sinensis, Thouin. Pseudocydbnia sinensis, Schneid.). Shrub or small tree: leaves elliptic-ovate or elliptic-oblong, acute at both ends, sharply and finely serrate, villous beneath when young, 2-3 in. long: flowers light pink, about 1 1/3 in. across: fruit dark yellow, oblong, 4-6 in. long. May. China. B.R. 11:905. R.H. 1889:228. A.G. 12:16. B.M. 7988. - The leaves assume a scarlet fall coloring. Not hardy north of Philadelphia, except in favored localities. See also Quince.
aa. Flowers in leafless clusters, nearly sessile, before or with the leaves; calyx-lobes erect, entire: stipules large. (Chsenomeles proper.) b. Leaves lanceolate or narrow-lanceolate, pubescent beneath while young.
(Pyrus cathayensis, Hemsl. Cydonia cathayensis, Hemsl.). Shrub, to 10 ft.: leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, acute, finely and sharply serrate, 2 1/2 -4 1/2in. long and 1/2-1 1/2in. broad; petioles about 1/2in. long: flowers in clusters, red, I 1/2in. across; styles pubescent at the base; petals distinctly clawed: fruit oblong-ovoid, 6-7 in. long, with a cavity at each end. Cent. China. H.I. 27:2657, 2658. - Closely related to the following species, but leaves much narrower; less hardy.
bb. Leaves elliptic-oblong to obovate, glabrous. japonnica, Lindl. (Pyrus japonica, Thunb. Cydonia japonica, Pers. Chaenomeles lagenaria, Koidzumi). Japan Quince. Japonica. Fig. 889. Shrub, 3-6 ft., with spreading, spiny branches: leaves ovate or oblong, acute, sharply serrate, glabrous, glossy above, 1 1/2-3 in. long: flowers in 2-6-flowered clusters, scarlet-red in the type, l 1/2-2 in. across: fruit globular or ovoid, 1 1/2-2 in. high, yellowish green. March, April. China, Japan. R.B. 1:260. L.B.C. 16:1594. Gn. 33, p. 491; 40:126; 50, p. 106 (fruits); 71,p. 262 (habit). G.C. III. 34:434. B.H. l:260(fruits). R.H. 1876:330(fruit). G.M. 35,suppl. Nov. 12. V. 4:38. - Many garden forms in all shades from white to deep scarlet, and also with double flowers Some of the best are the following: variety alba, Lodd. Flowers white, blushed. L.B.C. 6:541. variety albo-cincta,
Fig. 889. Chaenomeles japonica, the Japan or flowering quince. (X 1/2)
Van Houtte. Flowers white with pink margin. F.S. 14:1403. variety albo-rosea, Spaeth. Flowers white, partly pink. G.W. 7:113. variety atrosanguinea plena, Hort. Flowers deep scarlet, semi-double. variety Baltzii, Spaeth. Flowers beautiful rosy pink, very floriferous. G.W. 7:113. variety Candida, Hort. Flowers pure white. variety cardinalis, Carr. Flowers large, deep scarlet. R.H. 1872:330, f. 1. variety eburnea, Carr. Flowers pure white, rather small. R.H. 1872:330, f. 4. variety Gaujardii, Lem. Flowers salmon-orange. I.H. 7:260. variety grandifldra, Rehd. (C. alba grandiflora, Carr.). Flowers nearly white, large. R. H. 1876:410. Gn. 13:144. variety Mallardii, Carr. Flowers rose, bordered white. R.H. 1872:330, p. 2. I.H. 4:135. G.Z. 1:208. variety Moerloosei, Versch. Flowers white, striped pink. I.H. 3:107. F.S. 5:510. variety Papeleui, Lem. Flowers yellow, bordered pink. I.H. 7:260. variety pendula, Temple & Beard, with slender, pendulous branches. variety rosea plena, Hort. Flowers rose, semi-double. variety rubra grandiflora, Hort. Flowers large, deep crimson. variety sanguinea plena, Hort. Flowers scarlet, double. variety serotina, Andre\ Flowers in stalked leafy clusters in autumn.
R.H. 1894, pp. 424, 425; 1903, p. 20. variety Simonii, Andre. Flowers dark crimson, semi-double: low and upright. G.W. 7:113. variety sulphurea, Hort. (variety sulphiirea perfecta, Van Houtte). Flowers yellowish. variety umbilicata, Sieb. & De Vries. With rose-red flowers, and large fruits umbilicate at the apex. F.S. 5:510.
(Pyrus Maulei, Mast. Cydonia Maulei, Moore. C. alplna, Koehne). Low shrub, 1-3 ft.: branches spiny, with short, rough tomentum when young: leaves roundish oval to obovate, obtuse or acute, coarsely crenate-serrate, glabrous, 1-2 in. long: flowers bright orange-scarlet, 1-1 1/2 in. across: fruit yellow, nearly globular, about 1 1/2 in. across. March, April. Japan. B.M. 6780. G.C. II. 1:757 and 2:741; 111.34:435. Gn. 13:390; 33, p. 490; 50, p. 106; 55, p. 354. F. 1875:49. R.H. 1875:195. F.M. 1875:161. H.B. 26:241. -A very desirable hardy shrub, with abundant flowers of a peculiar shade of red. variety alpina, Schneid. (C'. japonica variety alplna, Maxim. Cydonia Sargentii, Lemoine). Dwarf spiny shrub, with procumbent stems and ascending branches: leaves roundish oval, 1/2-l in. long: flowering and fruiting profusely. R.H. 1911:204. variety superba, Hort. Flowers deeper red. variety tricolor Hort. Dwarf shrub, with pink and white variegated leaves - By some botanists this species is considered to be the typical C. japonica, and the preceding species is called C. lagenaria.