This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
(Greek, brittle branch). Virgilia of gardens. Leguminosae. Yellow-Wood Trees grown chiefly for their large panicles of white flowers and for their handsome foliage.
Deciduous: winter-buds naked, several superposed and concealed during the summer in the enlarged base of the petiole: leaves alternate, odd-pinnate, with few rather large entire short-stalked leaflets: flowers in long, usually panicled racemes, white, papilionaceous; calyx campanulate, 5-toothed; stamens 10, nearly free: pod narrow-oblong, compressed, 3-6-seeded, with thin membranous valves. - Four species in N. Amer. and E. Asia. Hardy ornamental trees of medium size, with showy flowers and handsome foliage, turning bright yellow in fall. They thrive in almost any soil. Prop, by seeds, sown in spring, or by root cuttings, dug up in fall and kept in sand or moss, moderately moist and cool, until spring.
Koch (C. tinctoria, Raf. Virgilia lutea, Michx.). Tree, with yellow wood and smooth bark, sometimes 50 ft.: leaflets 7-9, oval or ovate, glabrous, bright green, 3-4 in. long: panicles loose, drooping, 10-20 in. long; flowers white, fragrant, over 1 in. long. June. Ky., Tenn., and N. C. S.S. 3:119-20. B.M. 7767. Mich. Hist. Arb. III. 266. Gng. 2:401; 5:98. F.E. 8:427. G.F. 1:92. Gn. 24, pp. 96-7; 34, p. 329. G.C. III. 42:186-7. M.D.G. 1899:444-5. G.W. 12, p.
397. V. 4:307. A.G. 15:270. - One of the most beautiful flowering native trees, with wide, graceful head and a short trunk, well adapted as single tree on the lawn. Hardy north to New England and Ont. The wood yields a clear yellow dye. There is a variety aiireo-variegdta with leaves variegated with yellow.
Hemsl. Tree, to 80 ft.: leaflets 9-13, oblong to oblong-lanceolate, usually rounded at the base, yellowish green, pubescent beneath along the midrib, 2-4 in. long; rachis and petiole pubescent: flowers in loose, upright, much-branched panicles, 5-12 in. long and 4-8 in. across, white or pinkish, about 1/2in. long. June, July. W. and China.
C. amurensis, Koch = Maackia amurensis. - C. platycarpa, Makino (Sophora platy-carpa, Maxim.). Tree: leaflets 9-15, ovate to elliptic-lanceolate, 2-3 1/2 in.: panicles broadly pyramidal, upright; fls . 1/2in. long, white standard with yellow spot at the base: pod narrowly winged. Japan. S.I.F. 2:32. Very-rare in cultivation - C. Tashirdi, Y a t a b e = Maackia Ta-shiroi. - C. Wilsonii, Takeda. Tree, to 50 ft.: leaflets 7-9, elliptic-ovate to ovate - oblong, usually broadly cuneate at the base: panicles upright, 5-8 in. long; flowers 3/4in. long; ovary pubescent. Cent. China.