This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
(C. quinquenirvis, Franch.). Shrub 4-6 ft.: young branches quadrangular, usually reddish brown: leaves short-petioled, of firm texture, oblong-obovate to elliptic-lanceolate, acute, cuneate at the base, dark green above, paler beneath with appressed hairs, with 3-4 pairs of veins, 1 1/2 - 3 1/2 in. long: cymes long peduncled; style thickened below the apex: fruit black. June. Cent. China. G.C. III. 50:95. G.M. 54:593. Gt. 1896, p. 285. Wang. 72. - Handsome 6hrub nearly half-evergreen, but not hardy N. P. 3567.
(C. mas variety nana, Dipp.). Dense shrub, to 6 ft.: branchlets terete, glabrous: leaves crowded, broadly ovate to oblong-ovate, short-acuminate, abruptly contracted at the base, dark green and nearly glabrous above, paler and appressed-hairy beneath, 1 1/2 - 3 1/2 in. long: cymes long-peduncled, 2-3 in. broad; style thickened below the apex: fruit black. July. Origin unknown. - Handsome with its dense dark green foliage, particularly when dotted with the white flower-clusters; has proved hardy at the Arnold Arboretum.
ff. Leaves with woolly hairs beneath: branches purple.
Shrub, to 12 ft., with purple or dark blood-red branches: leaves broad-elliptic or ovate, rounded or narrowed at the base, usually pubescent on both sides, pale green beneath, 1 1/2 -3 1/2 in. long: flowers greenish white, in dense cymes: fruit black. May, June. Eu., Orient. variety variegata, Dipp. Leaves variegated with yellowish white. G.W. 9, p. 247. variety viridissima, Dieck. With green branches and green fruit
bb. Flowers in dense heads or umbels, with an involucre.
c. Color of flowers yellow; involucre yellowish, not exceeding the flowers (Macrocarpium.)
(C. mascula, Hort.). Cornelian Cherry. Fig. 1066. Shrub or small tree, to 20 ft.: leaves ovate or elliptic, acute, appressed-pubescent, and green on both sides, 1 1/2 - 4 in. long: flowers in sessile opposite umbels, before the leaves; pedicels not exceeding the involucre: fruit oblong, scarlet, 3/4in. long, edible. March, April. S. Eu., Orient. Mn. 5:192. G.C. II. 9:399. H.W. 3, p. 61. - Handsome shrub of dense growth with glossy foliage, very attractive in early spring with its yellow flowers, and again in fall with its shining scarlet fruits variety ma-crocarpa, Dipp. fruit larger. variety albocarpa, Schneid. (variety luteo-carpa, Wang.). fruityellowish. variety aurea, Schelle. Leaves yellow. variety aureo-elegantis-sima, Schelle. Leaves variegated with pink or yellow. F. 1877: 109. G.Z.21:169. variety argenteo - marginata, Hort. Leaves bordered white. variety nana, Simon - Louis. Dwarf form. It has been confused with C. pumila (No. 15) which has len-ticillate branchlets and usually 4 pairs of veins.
Fig. 1066. Cornus mas. (Sprays X 1/2)
Shrub or small tree, to 15 ft.: leaves elliptic, acuminate, pale green beneath and with large tufts of dark brown hairs in the axils of the veins: flowers like those of the former; pedicels longer than the involucre: fruit scarlet, oblong. Japan, China. S.Z. 50. - Very similar to the last.
cc. Color of flowers greenish yellow, sessile, with a showy white involucre, much exceeding the flowers
D. fruits in dense clusters, but individually distinct. (Benthamidia, Cynoxy-lon).
Flowering Dogwood. Fig. 1067. Shrub or small tree with spreading branches, 10-15 ft., rarely to 40 ft,: leaves oval or ovate, acute, dark green and glabrous above, glaucous or whitish beneath, usually only pubescent on the veins, 3-6 in. long: involucre white or pinkish, 3-4 in. wide; bracts 4, obovate, emarginate: fruit 1/2in. long, scarlet. May. Mass. to Fla., west to Ont. and Texas, also E. and S. Mex. S.S. 5:112-13. Em. 468. G.F.3:431. B.M.526. Gn. 33, p. 441; 43, p. 153; 52, p. 177; 53, p. 222. J.H. III. 28:453.; 55:331. F.E. 23:511. G. 34:531. Gn. M. 5:138. M.D.G. 1898:405. V. 5:230; 20:51. - One of the most beautiful American flowering trees; hardy N. variety pendula, Dipp. With pendulous branches. F.E. 17, p. 68. V. 13:333. variety rubra, Andre. With pink involucre. R.H. 1894:500. A.G. 18:441. F.E. 9:572. B.M. 8315. G. 28:689. Neither variety as hardy as the type.
Tree, to 80 ft.: leaves ovate or obovate, usually pubescent beneath, 4-5 in. long: involucre white or tinged with pink, 4-6 in. across; bracts 4-6, oblong or obovate, sometimes roundish, mostly acute: fruit bright red or orange, crowned with the broad, persistent calyx. Brit. Col. to S. Calif. S.S. 5:214-15. Gng. 6:274. B.M. 8311. G. 27:366 -This species surpasses the former in beauty, but is more tender, particularly while the plants are young, and has rarely been successfully cultivated outside of its native country.
dd. fruits connate into a globular fleshy head. (Benthamia.) 21. Kousa, Buerg. (Benthamia japonica, Sieb. & Zucc. C. japonica, Koehne, not Thunb.). Fig. 1068. Shrub or small tree, to 20 ft.: leaves cuneate, elliptic - ovate, acuminate, dark green above, glaucous and appressed-pubescent beneath, 2-4 in. long: involucre creamy white, 2 1/2 - 3 in. wide; bracts ovate, acute: fruits forming a globular head. June. Japan, China. S.Z. 16. S.I.F. 2:59.
Fig. 1067. Cornus florida. (X 1/2)
Gn. 43:152; 60, p. 165. G.C. III. 19:783. A.G. 9:329
(adapted in Fig. 1068); 13:674. Gng. 3:149. J.H. III.
Fig. 1068. CornusKousa. (X 1/3)
35:9; 63:187. M.D.G. 1899:328-9. R.B. 30:64. G.
27:367. Gn.W. 8:741. G.M. 35, suppl. Oct. 8. - Flowers
very showy, appearing after the leaves in June and contrasting well with the bright green foliage; hardy as far north as Mass. Sometimes variegated.
Tree: leaves coriaceous, elliptic-oblong, narrowed at both ends, appressed - pubescent above and more densely and whitish beneath, 2-4 in.: involucre about 2 1/2 - 3 in. wide, creamy white; bracts ovate, acute: fruit - head over 1 in. across, scarlet. June Himalayas. B R. 19:1579. Gn 54, p. 310; 60, p 165; 64, p. 135 70, p. 123; 73, p 411. G.C. Ill 16:501; 45:83; 48:447. J. H. III. 30:213. M.D.G. 1898:568. - Evergreen tree, with showy flowers and fruits; hardy only S.
aa. Plants low herbs: flowers in dense heads, with a white (or pinkish) involucre. (Arctocrania, Chamaeperi-clymenum.)
Herb, 1/3 - 2/3 ft. high, with creeping rootstock: leaves whorled, sessile, elliptic or obovate, glabrous or nearly so, 1-3 in. long: head greenish, long-peduncled; involucre white, 1-1 1/2 in. wide: fruit bright red, globose. May-July. N. Amer., south to Ind., Colo., and Calif. B.M. 880. G.C. III. 47:363 -Handsome plant for half-shady places.
C. Arnoldiana, Rehd. (C. obliqua X C. racemosa). Intermediate between the parents: last year's branches purple, older gray or grayish brown: flowers as profusely as in C. racemosa, but the white or bluish white fruit appears rather sparingly. Originated at the Arnold Arboretum. S.T.S. 1:40. - C. australis, C. A. Mey. Closely allied and very similar to C. sanguinea, but leaves beneath with appressed hairs and branches less brightly colored. Asia Minor, Caucasus. - C. Bretschneideri, Henry (C. aspera, Wang.) Shrub, to 12 ft.: branches green or purplish: leaves ovate to elliptic-ovate, usually rounded at the base, rough-pubescent on both sides, 2-4 in. long: cyme dense: fruit bluish black. N. China, Hardy. - C. corynostylis, Koehne=C. macrophylla. - C. glabrata, Benth. Shrub, to 10 ft.: branches gray: leaves small, nearly glabrous, green and shining on both sides: fruit white. Ore. to Calif. - C. Hessei, Koehne. Allied to C. alba. Dwarf, dense shrub: leaves crowded, small, very dark green: fruit bluish white. Probably from E. Asia. - C. Koenigii, Schneid. (C. australis variety Koenigii, Wang.). Allied to C. sanguinea. Leaves larger, 3-5 1/2 in. long, sparingly appressed-puescent beneath. Transcaucasia. - C. macrophylla, Wall. (C. corynostylis, [Koehne). Allied to C. brachypoda.
Tree, to 30 ft.: leaves broadly ovate to elliptic-ovate, acuminate: infloresence cymose; style club-shaped at the apex. Himalayas. B.M. 8261. J.H.S. 27, p. 860. Gt. 1896, p. 285. - C. oblonga, Wall. Shrub or tree, to 30 ft.: leaves narrow-oblong, nearly glabrous, glaucous beneath, coriaceous: flowers white, fragrant, in cymose panicles. Himalayas. - C. poliophyHa, Schneid. & Wang. Shrub, to 12 ft.: branches brown: leaves subcoriaceous, elliptic or elliptic-ovate, slightly villous above, beneath more densely so and grayish white, 2 1/2 -4 1/2 in. long: cymes long-peduncled: fruit black. Cent. China. - C. pubescens, Nutt. Shrub, to 15 ft., with purple branches: leaves nearly glabrous above, glaucous and woolly-pubescent beneath: fruit white. Brit. Col. to Calif. - C. Sla-nnii, Rehd. (C. rugosa X C. stolonifera). Intermediate between the parents: branches purple: leaves more or less woolly beneath: fruit bluish, rarely white. Originated at Rochester, N. Y. - C. suecica, I.inn. Chamaeipericlymenum suecicum, Aschers. & Graebn.) Allied to C. canadensis:leaves all opposite: flower-head purple, the white involucre 1 in. or less wide.
Arctic Amer., N. Eu., N. Asia. Gn. 55, p. 239. S.E.B. 4:634. Alfred Rehder.