6. Europaea, Linn

(E. vulgaris, Mill.). Fig. 1465. Erect shrub or sometimes small tree, to 20 ft.: leaves ovate or oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, crenately serrate, 1 1/2-2 1/2 in. long: flowers yellowish, in few-fid. cymes: caps. 4-lobed, usually pink. May. Eu. to E. Asia. B.B.(ed. 2)2:492. H.W.

Evonymus europaea. (X 1/3)

Fig. 1465. Evonymus europaea. (X 1/3) deeply 4-lobed, yellowish red; seed black, not wholly covered by the orange aril. May, June; fruit Aug. S. E. Eu., W. Asia. H.W. 3, p. 55.

3, p. 53. - Varying with narrower and broader leaves There are also several varieties with variegated leaves and some with fruits of different colors, as variety atrorubens, Rehd. (E. vulgaris variety atrorubens, Schneid. E. europaea fruit atropurpiireo, Hort.), with deep purple fruits; variety leucocarpa, DC. (E. europaeafr. albo, Hort.), with whitish fruits, and variety atropurpurea, Arb. Kew, with rather narrow purplish leaves variety nana, Lodd., is a dwarf, dense, and strictly upright form with elliptic to elliptic-lanceolate leaves 1-1 1/2 in., or on vigorous shoots, to 2 1/2 in. long: it hardly ever flowers and is tenderer than the type.

ff. The caps, with winged lobes: leaves broad.

7. Latifolia, Scop

Shrub or small tree, to 20 ft.: winter-buds elongated, acute, about 1/2in. long: leaves obovate-ob-long, acuminate, crenately serrate, 2 - 4 in. long: flowers yellowish, often 5-merous, in slender-peduncled, rather many-flowered cymes: caps, pink, large, with winged lobes. May, June; fruit Sept. S. Eu., W. Asia. B.M. 2384. Gn. 39, p. 213. Gt. 53, p. 30. G. 4:235. H.W. 3, p. 54. F.S.R. 3, p. 29. - A very decorative species, with handsome foliage and large pendulous fruits

8. Sanguinea, Loes

Shrub or small tree, to 20 ft.: winter-buds elongated, acute: branchlets nearly terete: leaves broadly oval or ovate to elliptic-ovate, acute, broadly cuneate or rounded at the base, densely fim-briate-serrulate, dull green above, paler below and slightly reticulate, 1 3/4-4 in. long: cymes lax, long-pe-duncled; flowers usually 4-merous: fruit purple, slightly lobed, 4-winged, the wings 1/4-1/3in- long; aril orange, entirely covering the black seed. June; fruit Sept. Cent, and W China. variety brevipedunculata, Loes. Peduncles about 1 in. long. W. China. variety camptoneura, Loes. Leaves oval or ovate to elliptic-ovate, veins curved (broader in the type and veins nearly straight). Cent, and W. China.

eb. Anthers purple. f. Flowers purple. 9. atropurpurea, Jacq. (E. americana, Hort.). Burning Bush. Shrub or small tree, to 20 ft.: leaves elliptic, acuminate, obtusely serrate, pubescent beneath, l 1/2-5 in. long: flowers purple, in slender-peduncled, many-flowered cymes: caps, deeply 3-4-lobed, scarlet. June; fruit Oct. E. N. Amer., west to Mont. B.B. (ed. 2) 2:491.

ff. Flowers yellowish or whitish.

G. Petioles one-fifth to one-sixth as long as the If.; leaves acute or gradually acuminate: fruit pink.

H. Leaves oblong to ovate-oblong, broadest about or below the middle.

10. Maackii, Rupr

(E. Hamiltoniana, Dipp., not Wall.). Large shrub or small tree, glabrous: leaves elliptic-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, gradually narrowed toward the base, serrulate, 2-3 in. long and 3/4-1 1/4in. broad: cymes small, about 3/4in. across: fruit pink, 4-lobed, about 1/3in. across; aril orange-red, usually closed, rarely slightly opened at the apex. June: fruit Sept. N. E. Asia.

11. Hians, Koehne

Large shrub: leaves ovate-oblong, short-acuminate, rounded or broadly cuneate at the base, serrulate, 2 1/2-4 1/2 in. long and 1-1 3/4 in. broad: cymes rather long - stalked, small; stamens with very short filaments: fruit pink, turbinate, deeply 4-lobed, 1/3in. across; aril blood-red, open at the apex and disclosing the blood-red seed. June; fruit Sept. Japan. S.I.F. 2:39 (as E. europaea).

hh. Leaves generally obovate or obovate-oblong, to 2 1/2 in. broad.

12. Yedoensis, Koehne

(E. Sieboldidna, Rehd., not Blume). Large shrub: leaves usually obovate, sometimes elliptic, broadly cuneate at the base, abruptly acuminate, serrulate, 2-5 in. long and 1 1/2-2 1/2 in broad: cymes long-stalked, rather dense and many-flowered: fruit pink, deeply 4-lobed, 1/2in. across; aril orange, usually closed. June; fruit Sept. Japan. Gt. 53, p. 31. S.T.S. 1:62. F.E. 31:125. variety calocarpa, Koehne. fruit bright carmine. variety Koehne-ana, Loes. Leaves hairy on the veins below. Cent. China.

GG. Petioles usually a third to a fourth as long as the If.; leaves abruptly long-acuminate: fruit pale yellowish or pinkish white.

13. Bungeana, Maxim

Shrub, to 15 ft., with slender branches: leaves slender-petioled, ovate-elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate, long-acuminate, finely serrate, 2-4 in. long: flowers in rather few-flowered but numerous cymes: fruit deeply 4-lobed and 4-angled; seeds white or pinkish, with orange aril. June; fruit Sept., Oct. China, Man-


M.D.G. 1899:569. - Very attractive with its rather large, profusely produced fruits, remaining a long time on the branches. variety semipersistens, Schneid. (E. Hamiltoniana variety semipersistens, Rehd. E. Sieboldiana, Hort., not Blume). Leaves elliptic, long-acuminate, half-evergreen, keeping its bright green foliage S. until mid-winter: fruit bright pink, usually sparingly produced and ripening very late.

aa. Foliage evergreen or half-evergreen (see also the preceding variety).

B. Leaves rather thin, half-evergreen. 14. patens, Rehd. (E. kiautschovica variety patens, Loes. E. Sieboldiana, Hort., not Blume). Spreading shrub, to 10 ft., the lower branches sometimes procumbent and rooting: branchlets obscurely 4-angled, minutely warty: leaves elliptic to elliptic-oblong, rarely obovate-oblong, acute, cuneate at the base, crenately serrulate, bright green above: cymes 2-3 in. across, loose, slender-peduncled: fruit subglobose, pink; seed pinkish brown, covered entirely by the orange aril. Aug., Sept.; fruit Oct., Nov. Cent. China. S.T.S. 1:64. - Hardy as far north as N. Y., in sheltered positions to Mass. One of the best shrubs for winter-effect on account of its abundant late-ripening fruits and the handsome foliage remaining on the branches until spring except when destroyed by severe frost. • bb. Leaves thickish, evergreen.

15. Japonica, Linn

Upright shrub, to 8 ft., with smooth and slightly quadrangular or striped branches: leaves obovate to narrow-elliptic, cuneate at the base, acute or obtuse, obtusely serrate, shining above, 1 1/2-2 1/2 in. long: flowers greenish white, 4-merous, in slen-der-peduncled, 5- to many-flowered cymes: caps, depressed, globose, smooth, pink. June, July.; fruit Oct. S. Japan. S.I.F. 2:39. B.R. 30:6. - A very variable species. variety macrophylla, Sieb. (variety robusta, Hort.). Leaves oval, large, 2 1/2-3 in. long. variety microphylla, Sieb. (E. pulchella, Hort. Eiirya microphylla, Hort.). Leaves small, narrow-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. variety columnaris, Carr. (variety pyramidalis, Hort.). Of upright, columnar habit: leaves broadly oval. There are many varieties with variegated leaves; some of the best are the following: variety argenteo-variegata, Regel. Leaves edged and marked white. variety aureo-variegata, Regel. Leaves blotched yellow. Lowe, 49. variety albo-marginata, Hort. Leaves with white, rather narrow margins. variety medio-picta, Hort. Leaves with a yellow blotch in the middle. variety pallens, Carr. (variety flavescens, Hort.). Leaves pale yellow when young; similar is variety aurea, Hort., but the yellow is brighter and changes more quickly to green. variety viridi-variegata, Hort. (variety Due d'Anjou, Hort.). Leaves large, bright green, variegated with yellow and green in the middle. variety aureo-marginata, Hort. Leaves edged yellow.

F.E. 16:436; 29:815.