Virginia Cowslip

See Bluebells.

Crambb (C. Cordifolia)

Sow seeds in ordinary soil where the plants are to remain or in a separate bed from which to be transplanted. Allow three or more feet between plants. If desired, start in a hotbed or greenhouse and transplant to pots or flats while the plants are small. The flowers are rarely produced before the third year, after which the plants fail. During the first two years the foliage is ornamental. Plant annually for succession.

Rock Cress (Arabis)

Sow seeds in early spring where the plants are to remain and then to about four inches. They thrive well in poor soil, but require plenty of sun. The perennial kinds are usually propagated by division. Cuttings root readily. See also Aubrietia, which is sometimes called Rockcress.


Plant bulbs in early autumn about three inches deep in a sunny situation and well-drained, rattier light, fairly rich soil. After the foliage has turned yellow, dig up the bulbs, dry them in the shade, clean and store them until planting time. If planting be delayed, the bulbs will start to grow. They may be allowed to remain in the ground two years without damage, but if three or more years they are likely to push out of the ground.

Autumn Crocus

See Colchicum.

Crown Imperial

See Fritillaria.


Sow seeds in December or January, and, as the little plants become large enough to handle, transplant them to small pots or to flats, in which they must be kept growing vigorously. As they need more space, plant them singly in pots, using a light, fairly rich potting soil. When the weather becomes settled, transfer the pots to a partially shaded location out of doors, plunging the pots almost to their rims in a well-drained soil. By September the plants should be in five-inch or six-inch pots, in which they are to flower. About fifteen months must elapse from planting the seed before the flowers appear. Only vigorously growing plants should be kept; the slow ones are not worth saving. Bulbs obtained from seedsmen are frequently unsatisfactory because they have become dried.

Cup And Saucer

See Canterbury Bells.

Cypress-Vine (Lpomcea Quamoclit)

Sow the seeds in early spring where the plants are to remain, choosing good garden soil and a rather sunny exposure. Thin the plants to about eight inches; provide upright wire or string trellis ten feet or more high for the plants to twine upon.


Plant the bulbs three or four inches deep in autumn in good garden soil and in partial shade. Each bulb will produce a clump of bulbs in the course of three or four years, when, after the foliage has died down, they should be dug up, divided, and replanted. The clumps are often allowed to remain longer, but the production of flowers is reduced on account of the crowding.


The tubers may be planted in early spring in rather rich soil, but by starting them in a coldframe or a spent hotbed and transplanting to permanent quarters after danger of frost has passed, the blossoms may be obtained much earlier. Better still, by obtaining cuttings from the stems sent up by tubers started in the greenhouse in winter, potted plants may be set in the garden and brought into bloom several weeks in advance of those obtained by the first method. In autumn, a week after the tops have been killed by frost the tubers should be dug, dried, and stored in a cool, dry, airy, dark place until needed. They may be divided with a sharp knife, care being taken to have at least one bud upon the stem end of the tuber. The larger plants should stand three feet apart and have stakes, the smaller two feet or even less.

English Daisy (Bellis)

Sow the seeds in early spring, and when the plants are about two inches tall transplant about eight inches apart in rich, cool, moist soil partially shaded. After the plants have flowered they may be divided, division being indicated by the various crowns, each of which should have some roots attached to it.

Michaelmas Daisy

See Asters, native.

Swan River Daisy (Brachycome)

Sow the seeds in early spring in gentle heat, and when about two inches tall transplant about six inches apart in good soil. Sowings made in the open ground when the soil becomes warm may be made for succession.

Dame's Violet

See Rocket, Sweet.

Day Lily

See Funkia.


See Larkspur.


Sow seeds in early spring under glass, transplant the seedlings when they are large enough to handle, using flats or small pots. When the weather has become settled, set in the garden from a foot to eighteen inches apart according to variety. The perennial kinds may be divided in spring. Any good garden soil suits them.


See Bleeding-heart.


See Gas-plant.


See Shooting-star.


For D. Japonicus see Pueraria. For D. Lablab, see Bean, Hyacinth.


See Leopard's Bane.

Elecampane (Inula Grandiflora)

Sow seed in spring in any good soil well exposed to the sun, or divide clumps.

Elephant's Ear (Colocasia)

Plant the tubers in a mild hotbed or greenhouse in late winter, and when the weather has become settled transplant to summer quarters, allowing three feet or more between the larger growing kinds. Select damp, rich ground or keep the ground moist by weekly Drenchings.

At the approach of cold weather, dig up. the plants and store in a dry, airy frostproof place.


Sow the seeds where the plants, are to remain and thin out to four feet or more. The clumps may be divided after the second year or before, if they make a. very vigorous growth.


See Poppy, California.


See Miscanthus.


Same as Moonflower, which see.