A line actually drawn and used as the basis of measurement.

Bar Sand

Seashore sand.

Batter (or break back)

A term used to signify a wall or other material which does not stand upright but inclines from you when you stand before it.

Breaker Dust

The finest material from the stone crusher.

Broad Mortar Joint

Mortar joint from one-half to three-quarters of an inch in brick, and from one to two inches in stone work.

Cheek Block: Cheek Walls

The walls at the ends of steps, into which the steps are built.


A small reservoir or receiving basin at the head of a pipe leading to a ram or pump.

Laid Quarry Face (Stone)

The natural rock face of the stone as taken from the quarry.

Napping Hammer

Long-handled hammer used in breaking stone, weighing four to six pounds.

Neat Width

Exact width.


A concavity in a wall or railing rising from a lower to a higher level, or descending from a higher to a lower level.

Reveal Joint

Unpointed joints between the stones forming a wall, the mortar being raked out with a small tool from two to three inches deep.

Row-lock Fashion

Brick laid on edge as a coping or cover on top of a wall.

Rubble Gutter and Curb

Undressed stone from the field or quarry, laid at random.

Scotched Wall

Stone set on edge; that is, the narrow way up, and one stone rising above the other alternately.

Splint Spawls

The small stone resulting from dressing stone at the quarry; pieces which are too small for building purposes.


A mould used for forming or setting work.