Squash. Borer or Root-borer (Melittia satyriniformis). — Soft, white, grub-like larva which bores inside the stem and causes rot to develop, killing the vine.
Preventives. — Plant early squashes as traps. As soon as the early crop is gathered, burn the vines to destroy eggs and larvae of the borer. Fall harrowing of infested fields will help to expose the pupae to the elements. Cut out borers whenever found. After the vines have grown to some length, cover some of the joints with earth, so that a new root system will develop to sustain the plant in case the main root is injured. Strawberry. Crown-borer (Tyloderma fragariae). — White grub, one-fifth inch long, boring into the crown of the plant in midsummer. The mature insect is a curculio or weevil.
Preventives. — Rotation of crops. Isolation of new beds from infested beds. Plant uninfested plants. Leaf-roller (Ancylis comptana). — Larva, less than one-half inch long, feeding on the leaves, and rolling them up in threads of silk; two broods.
Treatment. — Turn under in the fall all old beds that have become worthless. Spray with arsenate of lead, 4 pounds in 100 gallons of water, after the eggs are laid but before the leaves are folded — the first half of May in the latitude of New Jersey. Root-borer (Anarsia sp.). —Larva, about one-half inch long, whitish, boring into the crown of the plant late in the season, and remaining in it over winter. Remedy. — Burn the plant. Root-louse (Aphis forbesii). — From July to the close of the season the lice appear in great numbers on the crowns and on the roots of the plants.
Remedies. — Rotation in planting. Disinfect plants coming from infested patches by dipping the crowns and roots in kerosene emulsion, or tobacco extract. Fumigation. Saw-fly (Emphytus maculatus). — Larva, nearly three-fourths inch long, greenish, feeding upon the leaves ; two broods. Remedies. — Hellebore. Arsenicals for second brood. Weevil (Anthonomus signatus). — Beetle, one-eighth inch long, reddish black, feeding on flower-buds, particularly those of the polleniferous varieties.
Preventives. — Plant principally pistillate varieties. Every fifth row should be of some profusely flowering staminate variety
SUGAR-CANE INSECTS to insure pollinization. Clean culture. Destroy all wild blackberry and raspberry vines in the vicinity. Root-borer (Typophorus canellus). — A whitish grub one-eighth inch in length, feeding on the roots. The parent beetle is brownish, and appears in great numbers in May.
Treatment. — Arsenicals to kill the beetles. Plant new beds at a distance from old ones. White Grubs. See under Corn, p. 314. Sugar-cane (D. L. Van Dine). Stalk-borer (Diatraea saccharalis). — This is the " cane-borer " of the South, and is a species of long standing in the southern United States. The insects attack corn and sugar-cane. The insect occurs as far south in the United States as the Rio Grande valley in Texas, and as far north as Maryland on the Atlantic coast. In corn-growing areas in the South, it is known as " the larger corn stalk-borer." The eggs of the insect are laid on the cane-leaves, and the caterpillar of the moth develops within the cane-stalk. Between the months of May and December, the complete development of the insect occupies a period of a little over thirty days, that is, a brood may be expected about every month.
Treatment. — The control measures consist of the burning of the trash after harvest, fall planting where possible, not to intercrop cane with corn, not to plant corn or cane on windrowed areas, that is, areas on which cane has been windrowed for the spring plant, and to cover all seed cane well to prevent the emergence of moths which may have developed from " borers " planted in the seed cane.