Tomato-worm (Phlegethontius sexta and P. quinquemaculata).— A very large green worm feeding upon the stems and leaves of the tomato and husk tomato. Seldom abundant enough to be very serious ; kept in check by parasites.
Remedies. — Hand-picking. Rotation of crops. Clean culture. Turkeys. Flea-beetles. — Dip the young plants in a strong solution of arsenate of lead. Bordeaux mixture acts as a repellent. See p. 303. Violet. Aphis. — Fumigation when grown under glass.
Gall-fly (Contarinia violicola). — The adult is a minute mosquito-like fly. The whitish or yellowish maggot feeds in folds of the opening leaves, which become deformed, turn brown, and die.
Treatment. — Fumigation is practically of no value. Thorough hand-picking as soon as any sign of injury is noticed. Do not let the pest become established in a house. Red-spider (Tetranychus bimaculatus). — Minute mites which cause the leaves to turn paler and become yellowish.
Treatment. — On greenhouse violets there is nothing better than a stiff spray of clear water so applied as not to drench the beds. Repeat the spraying once or twice a week. See p. 304. Wheat. Hessian-fly (Mayetiola destructor). —A small maggot infesting the plant between the leaf sheath and the stem. When full grown they transform to the puparium or " flaxseed " stage. Preventives. — Crop rotation, destruction of all volunteer wheat. Burning stubble where practicable. Late sowing as follows : — After September 1 in northern Michigan ; September 20 in southern Michigan and northern Ohio ; October 1 in southern Ohio ; October 10 to 20 in Kentucky and Tennessee ; October 25 to November 15 in Georgia and South Carolina. (Bureau of Entomology.) Joint-worms (Isosoma spp.). — Small yellowish larvae found in the straw, causing hard knots or galls.
Preventives. — Crop rotation. Heavy use of fertilizer to give a rapid growth. Burning of stubble wherever practicable. Chinch-bug. — See under Corn, p. 314. Willow. Willow-worm (Euvanessa antiopa). — Larva, nearly two inches long, black, feeding upon leaves of willow, elm, and poplar ; two broods. Remedy. — Arsenicals.