The market grades or classes of some products have been very carefully standardized. This is particularly true of grains, hay, and straw, and to a less extent of fruit. In prepared animal products there has been very little standardizing by societies or committees.

Cotton Grades

No printed rules have been formulated for the official grading of cotton, as this work proceeds upon the basis of a set of types of actual cotton, adopted as standard on the recommendation of a committee representing the entire cotton industry. These sets of cottons are made up by the United States Department of Agriculture and furnished to all applicants at the cost of their preparation. The samples are put up in specially prepared boxes.

In the Cotton Grades, as now being issued by the Department of Agriculture, several new ideas have been embodied, conspicuous among which is the protection of the grades by photographs. Each of the nine grade boxes contains twelve samples of cotton, separately packed, representing as nearly as possible the range of diversity in the grade represented. The boxes are twenty inches square; inside the lid of each is a full-size photograph showing the appearance of the cotton when certified by the Secretary of Agriculture. As each particle of trash and each material unevenness in the surface of the cotton is shown in the photograph, it is evident that any material change in the appearance of the cotton itself can easily be detected by comparison with the photograph. Of course these photographs make no pretension to show the grade of the cotton, — only the position of the trash and fiber. The seal of the Department of Agriculture and the signature of the Secretary, together with a seal-impress certifying the grade of the cotton, appear on the photograph. Experts of the highest class have been employed in the preparation of the Official Cotton Grades, and each set is a correct copy of the original types promulgated by the Secretary of Agriculture on the recommendation of Committee.

Grades of Hay and Straw (Established by the National Hay Association, Inc.) Hay.

Choice Timothy Hay - Shall be timothy not mixed with over one-twentieth other grasses, properly cured, bright, natural color, sound, and well baled.

No. 1 Timothy Hay - Shall be timothy with not more than one-eighth mixed with clover or other tame grasses, properly cured, good color, sound, and well baled.

No. 2 Timothy Hay - Shall be timothy not good enough for No. 1, not over one-fourth mixed with clover or other tame grasses, fair color, sound, and well baled.

No. 3 Timothy Hay - Shall include all hay not good enough for other grades, sound, and well baled.

Light Clover Mixed Hay - Shall be timothy mixed with clover. The clover mixture not over one-fourth, properly cured, sound, good color, and well baled.

No. 1 Clover Mixed Hay - Shall be timothy and clover mixed, with at least one-half timothy, good color, sound, and well baled.

No. 2 Clover Mixed Hay - Shall be timothy and clover mixed with at least one-third timothy. Reasonably sound and well baled.

No. 1 Clover Hay - Shall be medium clover not over one-twentieth other grasses, properly cured, sound, and well baled.

No. 2 Clover Hay - Shall be clover, sound, well baled, not good enough for No. 1.

No Grade Hay - Shall include all hay badly cured, stained, threshed, or in any way unsound.

Choice Prairie Hay - Shall be upland hay of bright, natural color, well cured, sweet, sound, and may contain 3 per cent weeds.

No. 1 Prairie Hay - Shall be upland and may contain one-quarter midland, both of good color, well cured, sweet, sound, and may contain 8 per cent weeds.

No. 2 Prairie Hay - Shall be upland, of fair color, and may contain one-half midland, both of good color, well cured, sweet, sound, and may contain 121/2 per cent weeds.

No. 3 Prairie Hay - Shall include hay not good enough for other grades and not caked.