By C. R. Crosby

Insects are of two kinds as respects their manner of taking food, — the mandibulate insects, or those that chew or bite their food, as larvae (" worms ") and most beetles ; and those that suck their food, as the plant-lice and true bugs. The former class is dispatched by poisons, the latter by caustic applications, as kerosene or soap preparations.

General or Unclassified Pests

Angleworm or Earthworm. - The common angleworm often destroys greenhouse plants by its burrowing. It is sometimes annoying in gardens also.

Treatment. - Lime-water applied to the soil.

Ants. — See Lawns, p. 322.

Aphides, Plant-lice or Green-fly, and Bark-lice. - Minute insects of various kinds, feeding upon the tender parts of many plants, both indoors and out.

Treatment - Kerosene emulsion. Hot water (about 125°). Pyrethrum. Fish-oil soap. Tobacco-water or extracts. Alcoholic and water extracts of pyrethrum. Hughes' fir-tree oil. In the greenhouse, fumigation with tobacco or hydrocyanic acid gas. Knock them off with the hose. In window gardens, dry pyrethrum or snuff.

Bag-worm or Basket-worm (Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis). - Larva working in singular dependent bags, and feeding upon many kinds of trees, both evergreen and deciduous. In winter the bags, empty or containing eggs, are conspicuous, hanging from the branches.

Treatment. - Hand-picking. Arsenicals.

Blister-beetle (Lytta, two or three species). - Soft-shelled, long-necked and slim black or gray spry beetles, feeding on the leaves of many trees and garden plants. Treatment. - Arsenicals. Jarring.

Brown-tail moth (Euproctis chrysorrhaea). - This highly destructive European insect was introduced near Boston a number of years ago, and is now rapidly spreading over New England. The snow-white moths, with a large tuft of brown hairs at the tip of the abdomen, appear in July and deposit eggs on the leaves in elongate masses covered with brown hairs from the body of the female. The caterpillars become only partly grown the first season, and hibernate in conspicuous nests, three or four inches long, at the tips of the branches. The black-bodied caterpillars, clothed with rather long, brownish, stinging hairs, complete their growth the next spring, feeding ravenously on the tender foliage and causing great damage in orchards, parks, and forests.

Treatment. - Cut out and burn all winter nests before the buds start. In the spring spray with arsenate of lead, as recommended for the gipsy-moth. Prevent the ascent of caterpillars from other trees by banding the trunks with tanglefoot. Keep the bands fresh by combing the surface every few days.

Cutworm. - Various species of Agrotis and related genera. Soft brown or gray worms, of various kinds, feeding on the roots, crown, or even the tops of plants.

Treatment. - Encircle the stem of the plant with heavy paper or tin, coating the top with tanglefoot. Arsenicals sprinkled upon small bunches of fresh grass or clover, which are scattered at short intervals about the garden towards evening. They will often collect under boards or blocks. Arsenicals mixed with shorts and placed about the plants. Make two or three deep holes by the side of the plant with a pointed stick ; the worms will fall in and cannot escape. Dig them out. Plow infested land in the fall to give birds a chance to find the worms.

Cutworm, Climbing. - Several species. The worms climb grape vines and small trees of various kinds at night and eat out the buds.

Preventive. - Band of cotton batting tied about the tree by lower edge, and the top rolled down like a boot-leg. Baits (see p. 293). Treatment, - Arsenicals. Hellebore.

Flea-beetle (Phyllotreta vittata; Haltica striolata, etc.) - Minute, dark-colored beetles, feeding upon many plants, as turnip, cabbage, radish, mustard, potato, strawberry, and stocks. They jump upon being disturbed. Closely related species attack various plants. Very destructive to plants which are just appearing above the surface.