This section is from the "Farm And Garden Rule-Book" book, by L. H. Bailey. Amazon: Farm and garden rule-book

Farm engineering is concerned with layouts, and the projection of physical enterprises on the land, — as surveying, laying out drains, irrigation works, roads, bridges, and the like. Farm mechanics has to do with construction, and the principles of physics underlying it. Farm machinery as a department of knowledge has to do with the application of mechanics to those devices known as machines. Farm architecture is concerned with the building of barns, residences, and other housing structures.

Silos

Least number of dairy cows that should be fed from silos of given diameters

(Rawl and Conover)

Feeding capacity of silos (Wis: Sta.).

When the cows are getting 40 pounds of silage daily, each cow should be allowed 4 to 5 square feet of feeding surface in the silo. Ten cows would require a feeding surface of 50 feet. A silo 8 feet in diameter would have a cross section, or feeding surface, of 50 square feet. For 10 cows, therefore, a silo should be 8 feet in diameter. Fifteen cows should have a silo 10 feet in diameter ; 20 cows should have a silo 12 feet in diameter. The diameter of silos required for different numbers of cows is shown in the following table. It is assumed that each cow eats 40 pounds of silage daily.

Diameter of Silo (in feet) | Number of Cows to be Fed |

10.................... | 12 |

12.................... | 17 |

14.................... | 23 |

16.................... | 30 |

18.................... | 38 |

Feed for 180 days

Silo 30 Ft. Deep, 24 Ft. of Silage | Silo 36 Ft. Deep, 30 Ft. of Silage | |||

Number of Cows in Herd | Fed down at rate 1 1/2 in. daily | Fed down at rate of 2 in. daily | ||

Tons Silage | Inside Diameter | Tons Silage | Inside Diameter | |

14...... | 36 | 10 | 36 | 9 |

15...... | 54 | 13 | 54 | 11 |

20...... | 72 | 15 | 72 | 12 |

25...... | 90 | 16 | 90 | 14 |

30...... | 108 | 18 | 108 | 15 |

35...... | 126 | 19 | 126 | 16 |

40...... | 144 | 21 | 144 | 18 |

45...... | 162 | 22 | 162 | 19 |

52...... | 180 | 23 | 180 | 20 |

60...... | 216 | 25 | 216 | 21 |

70...... | 252 | 27 | 252 | 23 |

80...... | 288 | 29 | 288 | 25 |

90...... | 324 | 31 | 324 | 26 |

100...... | 360 | 33 | 360 | 28 |

Approximate quantity of silage required per day (III. Sta.)

Kind of Stock | Daily Ration |

Beef Cattle— | Pounds |

Wintering calves, 8 months old............... | 15 to 25 |

Wintering breeding cows.............. | 30 to 50 |

Fattening beef cattle 18-22 months old — | |

First stage of fattening........ | 20 to 30 |

Later stage of fattening........ | 12 to 20 |

Dairy cattle.................. | 30 to 50 |

Sheep — | |

Winering breeding sheep............. | 3 to 5 |

Fattening lambs........... | 2 to 3 |

Fattening sheep............. | 3 to 4 |

This table, in connection with the following, may be used to determine the size of silo needed to fulfill various conditions. For example, if the silage is to be fed to a herd of 40 dairy cattle at the rate of 40 pounds per head per day, a silo 16 or 18 feet in diameter will be satisfactory.

Capacity of silo (King)

Necessary diameter of silos for feeding different numbers of cows while removing from 2 to 3.2 inches of silage daily (King)

Each cow is allowed 40 pounds of silage daily ; silo3 to be of sufficient capacity to hold silage for 180 days.

Silo 30 Ft. deep, no Partition Mean Depth fed Daily, 2 In. | Silo 24 Ft. deep with Partition Mean Depth fed Daily, 3.2 In. | |||||||

No. of Cows | Contents | Round diameter in ft. | Square sides in ft. | Contents | Round diameter in ft. | Square sides in ft. | ||

Tons | Cu. Ft. | Tons | Ct. Ft. | |||||

30 ... . | 108 | 4,091 | 15.0 | 12 X 14 | 108 | 5,510 | 17.00 | 16 X 16 |

40 ... . | 144 | 6,545 | 16.75 | 14 X 16 | 144 | 7,347 | 20.00 | 18 X 18 |

50 ... . | 180 | 8,182 | 18.75 | 16 X 18 | 180 | 9,184 | 22.00 | 20 X 20 |

60 ... . | 216 | 9,818 | 20.50 | 18 X 18 | 216 | 11,020 | 24.00 | 22 X 22 |

70 ... . | 252 | 11,454 | 22.00 | 20 X 20 | 252 | 12,857 | 26.00 | 22 X 26 |

90 ... . | 324 | 14,727 | 25.00 | 22 X 24 | 324 | 16,531 | 29.75 | 26 X 28 |

100 ... . | 360 | 16,364 | 26.50 | 24 X 24 | 360 | 18,367 | 31.25 | 28 X 28 |

Other silo figures.

Silos are now preferably cylindrical, for the silage packs and settles more evenly than in square or cornered constructions. Most silos now are wooden tank-like structures built of upright wooden staves. In the northernmost dairy regions, the silo may be inside the barn; but usually it is outside the main barn structure.

Weight of silage in silos of different depths two days after filling the silo

(King)

Depth of Silage | Weight at Different Depths | Mean Weight of Silage for Whole Depth of Silo |

Feet | Lb. per cu. ft. | Lb. per cu. ft. |

1........ | 18.7 | 18.7 |

5........ | 25.4 | 22.1 |

10........ | 33.1 | 26.1 |

15........ | 40.0 | 29.8 |

20........ | 46.2 | 33.3 |

25........ | 51.7 | 36.5 |

30........ | 56.4 | 39.6 |

35........ | 61.0 | 42.8 |

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