* Bean.

* Beggar weed.

* Spring vetch (Vicia sativa). Rape.

Turnip.

Oats.

Barley (little used).

Buckwheat.

Maize.

Millet (little used).

1 qt. of spring or winter vetch (seed) weighs 1.75 lb.

Average quantities of seed per acre for heavy cover-crops in fruit plantations

Barley....................    2-21/2 bu.

Beans ....................    11/2-2 bu.

Beggarweed...................    5-8 lb.

Buckwheat...................    l1/2 bu.

Clover, red...................    10-15 lb.

Clover, mammoth................    15-20 lb.

Clover, crimson.................    15-20 lb.

Cowpea....................    11/2-2 bu.

Maize.....................    2-3 bu.

Millet.....................    11/2 bu.

Oats.....................    2-3 bu.

Pea ....................    2-3 bu.

Rape.....................    2-5 lb.

Rye.....................    11/2-2 bu.

Soybean.....................    2-4 pk.

Sweet clover..................    10-12 lb.

Turnip....................    4 lb.

Velvet bean...................    1-4 pk.

Vetch....................20 1b. to 11/2 bu.

Wheat....................    2-21/2 bu.

Alfalfa (20 to 24 lb. to the acre) is sometimes used as a cover-crop in orchards, being plowed a year from sowing or allowed to remain for a longer period. Various combinations or mixtures are also used: as mammoth clover, 6 lb., alfalfa, 10 lb., turnip, 2 to 3 oz.; alfalfa, 6 lb., crimson clover, 6 lb., alsike clover, 3 lb., strap-leaf turnip, 2 to 3 oz., all sown in midsummer. Cowpeas in drills and cultivated, and rye. rape, or turnips added at the last cultivation. Winter vetch, 1 bu., rye, 1/2 bu. Cowpea, 11/2 bu.; red clover, 6 lb. Oats, 2 bu.; peas, 2 bu.

Catch-Crops

Catch-crops are those crops that occupy the ground for short intervals between the growing of other crops, in order to secure more products within a given time.

Nitrogen-consuming catch-crops: rye, wheat, buckwheat, turnips, dwarf.Essex rape.

Nitrogen-gathering catch-crops: red clover, 15 lb. per acre; mammoth clover, 15 lb.; alsike clover, 5 lb. with 5 lb. red clover; crimson clover, 12-15 lb.; alfalfa, 25-35 lb. broadcast or 15-25 lb. drilled; Canada field-pea, 1/2-2 bu.; cowpea, 1—11/2 bu., broadcast; soybean,1-11/2 bu. broadcast, or 2-3 pk. drilled; velvet bean, 1 bu.; sand or winter vetch, 11/2-2 bu.

The amount of nitrogen contained in various crops : —

 

Tons per Acre Green

Nitrogen Lb.

Organic

Matter

Lb.

Cowpeas

6

48

1920

Soybeans

6

60

2640

Crimson clover.......

6

60

2160

Alsike clover........

6

60

2640

Red Clover........

6

60

2400

Canada field-peas

5

50

2200

Nurse-Crops

Plants used to aid, shield, or shade other plants, until the other plants become established, are nurse-plants. Grain is a nurse-crop when it is used as an aid to seeding to grass. Nurse-cropping is practiced in forestry, also.