1 U.S. gallon = 231 cu. in. 1 U.S. gallon = 81/3 lb.

1 cu. ft. water = 62.5 lb. 1 cu. ft. water = 7.48 gal.

Feet-head of water, and equivalent pressure

Feet-Head

Pounds per Sq. In.

Feet-Head

Pounds per Sq. In.

Feet-Head

Pounds per Sq. In.

1

.43

60

25.99

200

86.62

2

.87

70

30.32

225

97.45

3

1.30

80

34.65

250

108.27

4

1.73

90

38.98

275

119.10

5

2.17

100

43.31

300

129.93

6

2.60

110

47.64

325

140.75

7

3.03

120

51.97

350

151.58

8

3.40

130

56.30

400

173.24

9

3.90

140

60.63

500

216.55

10

4.33

150

64.96

600

259.85

20

8.66

160

69.29

700

303.16

30

12.99

170

73.63

800

346.47

40

17.32

180

77.96

900

389.78

50

21.65

190

82.29

1000

433.09

Pressure and equivalent feet-head of water

Pounds per Sq.In

Feet-Head

Pounds per Sq. In.

Feet-Head

Pounds per Sq. In.

Feet-Head

1

2.31

40

92.36

170

392.52

2

4.62

50

115.45

180

415.61

3

6.93

60

138.54

190

438.90

4

9.24

70

161.63

200

461.78

5

11.54

80

184.72

225

519.51

6

13.85

90

207 81

250

577 24

7

16.16

100

230.90

275

643 03

8

18.47

110

253.98

300

692.69

9

20.78

120

277.07

325

750.41

10

23.09

125

288.62

350

808.13

15

34.63

130

300.16

375

865.89

20

46.18

140

323.25

400

922.58

25

57.72

150

346.34

500

1154.48

30

69.27

160

369.43

1000

2308.00

Table of equivalents for moving water

Gallons per Minute

Miner's Inches of 9 Gal. per

Minute

Cubic Feet per Minute

Gallons per Hour

42-Gallon Barrel

Bbls. per Minute

Bbls. per Hour

Bbls. 24 Hours

10

1.11

1.3368

600

.24

14.28

342.8

20

2.22

2.6733

1,200

.48

28.57

685.7

25

2.66

3.342

1,500

.59

35.71

857.0

27

3.0

3.609

1,620

.64

38.57

925.0

35

3.88

4.678

2,100

.83

50.0

1,200.0

36

4.0

4.812

2,160

.86

51.43

1,234.0

40

4.4

5.348

2,400

.95

57.14

1,371.0

45

5.0

6.015

2,700

1.07

64.28

1,543.0

75

8.33

10.026

4,500

1.78

107.14

2,581.0

80

8.88

10.694

4,800

1.90

114.28

2,742.0

90

10.0

12.031

5,400

2.14

128.5

3,085.0

100

11.1

13.368

6,000

2.39

142.8

3,428.0

125

13.8

16.710

7,500

2.98

178.6

4,286.0

150

16.6

20.052

9,000

3.57

214.3

5,143.0

175

19.4

23.394

10,500

4.16

250.0

6,000.0

180

20.0

24.062

10,800

4.28

257.0

6,171.0

225

25.0

30.079

13,500

5.35

321.4

7,714.0

250

26.7

33.421

15,000

5.95

357.1

8,570.0

270

30.0

36.093

16,200

6.33

385.7

9,257.0

360

40.0

48.125

21,600

8.57

514.3

12,342.0

400

44.4

53.472

24,000

9.52

571.8

13,723.0

450

50.0

60.158

27,000

10.7

642.8

15,428.0

Table of equivalents for moving water - Continued

Gallons per

Minute

Miner's Inches of 9 Gal. per

Minute

Cubic Feet per Minute

Gallons per Hour

42-Gallon Barrel

Bbls. per Minute

Bbls. per Hour

Bbls. 24 Hours

500

55.5

66.842

30,000

11.9

714.3

17,143.0

540

60.0

72.186

32,400

12.8

771.3

18,512.0

600

66.0

80.208

36,000

14.3

857.1

20,570.0

630

70.0

84.218

37,800

15.0

900.0

21,600.0

675

75.0

90.234

40,500

16.0

964.0

23,143.0

720

80.0

96.25

43,200

17.0

1028.0

24,685.0

800

88.8

106.94

48,000

19.05

1142.0

27,387.0

900

100.0

120.31

54,000

21.43

1285.0

30,857.0

1000

111.1

133.68

60,000

23.95

1428.0

34,284.0

1350

150.0

180.46

81,000

32.14

1928.0

46,085.0

1500

166.0

200.52

90,000

35.71

2142.0

51,427.0

1800

200.0

240.62

108,000

42.85

2571.0

57,713.0

2000

222.0

267.36

120,000

47.64

2857.0

68,568.0

2500

266.0

334.21

150,000

59.52

3571.0

85,704.0

2700

300.0

360.93

162,000

63.33

3857.0

92,572.0

3000

333.0

401.04

180,000

71.43

4285.0

102,840.0

Foot-loss by friction of water through pipes, by gravity (Ogden)

The spring or other source used for a water-supply would have to be as much higher than the highest fixture is as shown in the table, in order to provide the pressure required to overcome the friction in the pipe. The table shows the force required to keep the water moving through a small pipe, expressed in number of feet of head, when the water flows by its own weight and is not forced by a pump : —

Flow in Gallons per

Minute

Head in Feet lost by Friction in Each 100 Feet of Length

 

1/2-inch pipe

1-inch pipe

0.5

4

 

1.0

7

0.3

2.0

17

0.7

4.0

54

1.6

7.0

140

5.3

10.0

224

9.3

Friction-loss in pounds of water in pipes

Pounds pressure per square inch for each 100 feet of length in different size clean iron pipe, discharging given quantities water per minute.

Gallons

PER

Minute

Sizes of Pipe — Inside Diameter

3/4 in.

1 in.

l 1/4 in.

1 1/2 in.

2 in.

3 in.

4 in.

6 in.

8 in.

10 in.

12 in.

5

3.3

0.84

0.31

0.12

0.03

           

10

13.0

3.16

1.05

0.47

0.12

     

___

 

15

28.7

6.98

2.38

0.97

0.27

   

-----

 

-----

 

20

50.4

12.3

4.07

1.66

0.42

0.03

-----

-----

 

-----

-----

25

78.0

19.0

6.40

2.62

0.67

0.10

   

-----

-----

 

30

 

27.5

9.15

3.75

0.91

0.12

0.03

   

-----

 

35

 

37.0

12.4

5.05

1.26

0.14

0.05

___

___

__—

 

40

 

48.0

16.1

6.52

1.60

0.17

0.06

 

-----

-----

 

45

   

20.2

8.15

2.01

0.27

0.07

 

-----

-----

-----

50

   

24.9

10.0

2.44

0.35

0.09

       

75

   

56.1

22.4

5.32

0.74

0.21

0.03

   

___

100

     

39.0

9.46

1.31

0.33

0.05

     

125

 

-----

-----

 

14.9

1.99

0.51

0.07

     

150

   

-----

 

21.2

2.85

0.69

0.10

0.02

-----

 

175

 

-----

-----

 

28.1

3.85

0.95

0.14

0.03

   

200

 

-----

   

37.5

5.02

1.22

0.17

0.05

0.01

 

250

         

7.76

1.89

0.26

0.07

0.03

0.01

300

         

11.2

2.66

0.37

0.09

0.04

 

Gallons

3 in.

4 in.

5 in.

6 in.

7 in.

10 in.

12 in.

16 in.

20 in.

24 in.

30 in.

350

15.2

3.65

1.28

0.50

0.25

0.05

0.02

       

400

19.5

4.73

1.68

0.65

0.32

0.06

         

450

25.0

6.01

2.10

0.81

0.42

0.07

0.03

       

500

30.8

7.43

2.70

0.96

0.49

0.09

0.04

0.009

-----

   

600

 

10.6

3.45

1.72

0.86

0.13

0.05

       

750

   

5.40

2.21

1.11

0.18

0.08

 

-----

   

1000

 

-----

9.60

3.88

1.91

0.32

0.13

0.036

   

-----

1250

         

0.49

0.20

       

1500

         

0.70

0.29

0.71

     

1750

         

0.95

0.38

       

2000

         

1.23

0.49

0.123

     

2500

           

0.77

0.188

     

3000

           

1.11

0.267

0.09

   

3500

             

0.365

0.124

   

4000

             

0.47

0.158

0.067

0.022

4500

             

0.593

0.20

0.08

0.027

5000

             

0.73

0.244

0.102

0.035

Friction-head in feet in clean wrought-iron pipe for each 100 feet of length when discharging various quantities of water from a windmill (Fuller)

If the water is to be carried some distance fom the pump to a reservoir in the use of windmills in irrigation, then the pipe-line conveying the water to the reservoir will offer friction to the flow, and this friction expressed in feet should be added in determining the total head against which the pump must operate.

Data on Water 182

Suppose, it is desired to deliver 60 gallons of water per minute through a pipe-line 100 feet long. The table shows that a 3-inch line delivers 50 gallons per minute at a loss of 0.8 foot head, and a 4-inch line 75 gallons per minute with 0.48-foot loss. The size desired is therefore between 3 and 4 inches, and as no intermediate size is made in wrought-iron pipe, the 4-inch pipe is best, and the total head to pump against would be 25 + 3 + 0.48, or a total of 28.48 feet.

Barometric pressure at different altitudes, as affecting pumps With equivalent head of water and the vertical suction lift of pumps

Altitude

Barometric Pressure

Equivalent

Head of

Water

Practical

Suction Lift of Pumps

Sea level........

14.70

33.95

25

1/4 mile, 1,320 ft.........

14.02

32.38

24

1/2 mile, 2,640 ft.........

13.33

30.79

22

3/4 mile, 3,960 ft.........

12.66

29.24

21

1 mile, 5,280 ft.........

12.02

27.76

20

1 1/4 mile, 6,600 ft.........

11.42

26.38

19

1 1/2 mile, 7,920 ft.........

10.88

25.13

18

2 miles, 10,560 ft.........

9.88

22.82

16

Windmill Figures Windmills for pumping (Rayner).

Windmills vary in type and efficiency from a four-arm direct-connected paddle wheel, erected on a single post, to the modern curved blade, back-geared, steel windmill, erected on a scientifically constructed steel tower.

To select a proper-sized windmill for the purpose required, the speed of the wind in the particular locality should be considered. In the United States, this information can be readily secured from the nearest weather bureau station. When the average speed is above eight miles per hour, throughout the year, the following table may be followed safely : —

Lift (ft.)

8-ft. diameter windmill....... . 3 -inch diameter pump, 40

8-ft. diameter windmill........21/2-inch diameter pump, 70

10-ft. diameter windmill........3 -inch diameter pump, 70

10-ft. diameter windmill........21/2-inch diameter pump, 120

12-ft. diameter windmill........3 -inch diameter pump, 100

12-ft. diameter windmill........21/2-inch diameter pump, 180

12-ft. diameter windmill........21/4-inch diameter pump, 200

12-ft. diameter windmill....... . 2 -inch diameter pump, 300

When the average speed of the wind is less than given above, a proportionally larger diameter windmill should be chosen.

In the lift that is required of the pump, the elevation above the ground to the top of the elevated tank or cistern should be added to the depth of the well.