Control. — Destroy red cedars in the neighborhood, also wild apples and hawthorns. Spray thoroughly in the spring as for scab.

Scab (Venturia incequalis). Olive green, brownish or blackish scab-like spots on leaves and fruit. Arrests growth, and often causes distortion. In severe cases may make the leaves and young fruit fall. Makes leaves susceptible to spray injury. The fungus is known to be dependent upon weather conditions, as outlined in the beginning of this chapter. The fungus winters regularly on the dead fallen leaves. In the milder climate of Virginia, the fungus may winter on the twigs.

Control. - Rake and burn leaves, or plow under very early (before blossom buds open). Spray with lime-sulfur 32° Beaume, 1-40, or bordeaux, 3-3-50: (a) when blossom buds show pink, but before they open; (b) when the majority of petals have fallen; (c) three weeks after b depending upon the weather; (d) if a late attack is feared, spray thoroughly before the fall rains begin.

Apricot. Leaf-rust. - See under Plum, p. 279. Yellows. - See under Peach, p. 276. Black-spot or Scab. - See under Peach.

Asparagus. Rust. - (Puccinia asparagi). A rust of the tops, which is often so severe as to kill them, thus interfering with root development.

Control. - Three weeks after cutting stops dust the young tops with dry sulfur at the rate of 11/2 sacks of sulfur per acre. This should be done very early in the morning while the dew is still on, and only on a dewy morning. In a month or less make another application, using 2 sacks of sulfur per acre. The sulfur must go on in a dusty, smoky cloud and form a covering over all the growth. Flowers of sulfur is more satisfactory for this work, and is less expensive in the long run. Dusting machines may be obtained on the market.

Barley. Smut. - See under Smut of Cereals, p. 260.

Bean. Anthracnose or Pod-spot (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum). -Reddish-brown scab-like spots appearing on stems, pods, and veins of leaves, particularly on yellow-podded snap beans. The fungus grows through the pod and into the young bean seed. It lies dormant in the seed, and becomes active when the bean is planted. Control. - Select pods which are free from the spots and save the seed for planting. Such seed will grow a clean crop. If disease appears in the garden, it can be controlled by thoroughly hand spraying the vines from beneath as well as above, repeating the operation every ten days as long as necessary. Blight {Bacterium phaseoli). - A bacterial disease. Causes large, papery spots on leaves and watery spots on pods. Control. - As for Anthracnose.

Bean, Lima. - Blight (Phytophthora phaseoli). - Attacks the pods in August and September, covering them with a white, felted coating. It also attacks shoots and leaves.

Control. - Spray with bordeaux, 4-4-50, beginning about August first, and making applications at intervals of ten days or two weeks. Beet. Heart-rot (Phoma betae). - Leaves appear spotted late in July, then wilt, and finally a dry heart rot appears.

Control. - Destroy infected plants. Practice long rotation. Treat seed with formalin, 1 pint in 30 gallons of water. Leaf-spot (Cercospora beticola). - Ashen gray spots with reddish borders occurring on leaves. In advanced stages, leaf becomes much cracked and torn.

Control. - Spray with bordeaux mixture, 4-4-50, at frequent intervals. Scab (Oospora scabies). - Fungus produces a scabby patch on the root. The same disease as potato scab.

Control. - Avoid planting beets after potatoes for several years. Blackberry. Anthracnose. - See under Raspberry, p. 280.

Crown-gall or Root-gall (Bacterium tumefaciens). - A bacterial disease which soon ruins the bushes.

Treatment. - Plow up and burn all bushes in a diseased patch. Plant clean roots in a new place. Red or Orange Rust. - See under Raspberry. Brussels sprouts. Club-root. - See under Cabbage. Cabbage. Club-root or Club-foot (Plasmodiophora brassicae). -A contorted swelling of the roots of cabbage in the seed bed or field, preventing the plant from heading and causing it to assume a sickly color. Occurs on many allied plants - turnips, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, chard, radish, wild mustard, etc.