Old cream makes poor-flavored butter.

Probably the most common cause of poor-flavored butter is cream that has grown stale before being churned. Fine, fresh-tasting butter, with delicate flavors and aroma, cannot be made from old cream. Three days should be the limit of age, if the best quality is to be produced.

White specks in the butter.

These are caused by dried cream, and by lumps of coagulated casein. The cream should be stirred frequently while ripening and always strained through a fine-mesh wire strainer, when put in the churn.

Mottled butter.                                                                             

"Mottles" are caused by an uneven distribution of the salt. The action of the salt on the casein causes light streaks and spots to show all through the butter. The remedy is to wash well until the water is clear, and to work a little longer until the salt is evenly mixed with the butter. The proper point at which to stop working can be learned only by experience.

Effect of feed on butter-fat.

We have not much definite knowledge about the effect of feeds upon-texture and flavor of butter. Strong-flavored feeds, such as turnips, garlic, cabbage, silage, etc., may be fed immediately after milking and they will then have little or no effect upon the flavor of the milk.

Gluten feed, oil meal and soy beans are known to produce softer butter than corn meal and cotton-seed-meal, the latter being especially noted for the production of a hard, tallowy fat.

Butter from Whey

The quantity of butter that can be made from the whey from 100 pounds of milk is somewhat variable, depending on the amount of fat that is lost in the whey during the process of cheese-making. This loss depends on a great many conditions, but on the average about 5 ounces of butter can be made from the whey from 100 pounds of milk.

Milk, Butter, and Dairy-farm Scores Score-card for market milk (U. S. Dept. of Agric, Dairy Division)

Numerical Score

Flavor, 40

Composition, 25

Bacteria, 20

Acidity, 5

Appearance of package and contents, 10

Perfect score, 100


Judge's score.

Descriptive Score





Package and contents

Excellent . . .





Good ....


Fair ....

Fat, — per cent


— per cent

Foreign matter

Bad ....


Flat ....

Solids not fat, —

Liquefiers —


Metal parts

Bitter ....

per cent


Weedy . . .



Garlic ....


Silage ....


Manure . . .


Smothered . .


Other Taints.





Directions for scoring Flavor.

If rich, sweet, clean, and pleasant flavor and odor, score perfect (40). Deduct for objectionable flavors and odors according to conditions found.


If 3.25 per cent fat or above and 8.5 per cent solids not fat or above, score perfect (25). Deduct one point for each one-fourth per cent fat below 3.25, and one point for each one-fourth per cent solids not fat below 8.5.


Less than 10,000 per cubic centimeter......... (perfect) .    20

Over 10,000 and less than 25,000 per cubic centimeter.......    19

Over 25,000 and less than 50,000 per cubic centimeter.......    18

Over 50,000 and less than 75,000 per cubic centimeter.......    17

Over 75,000 and less than 100,000 per cubic centimeter.......    16

Deduct 1 point for each 25,000 above 100,000.

When an unusually large number of liquefying bacteria are present, further deduction should be made according to conditions found.


If 0.2 per cent or below, score perfect (5). Deduct one point for each 0.01 per cent above 0.2 per cent. (If Mann's test is used, discontinue adding indicator on first appearance of a pink color.)

Appearance of package and contents.

If package is clean, free from metal parts, and no foreign matter can be detected in the contents, score perfect (10). Make deductions according to conditions found.

Butter score-card (Cornell)

Flavor...................         45       -----Body...................          25       -----Color...................          15       -----Salt....................          10       -----Package..................         5       -----Total.................. 100 -----Name of Judge---------------------------------Flavor