Board measure is designed primarily for the measurement of sawed lumber. The unit is the board foot, which is a board one inch thick and one foot square, so that with inch boards the content in board measure is the same as the number of square feet of surface; with lumber of other thicknesses the content is expressed in terms of inch boards.
Lumber is always sold on a basis of 1000 feet board measure, the abbreviation for which is B.M., and for thousand is M. Thus, 500 feet B.M., costing $18 per thousand, would be $9; 100 feet B.M., $1.80; 10 feet B.M., 18 cents.
At $10 per M., B.M., lumber costs 1 per square foot; at $12, 1.2 square foot; at $14, 14 ; at $15, \f\ at $17, 1.7? ; at $20, 20 square foot. At $9 M., 1 sq. ft. is 9/10 at $8, 8/10. Multiply the number of square feet B.M. by the price per square foot.
To find the B.M., multiply the length in feet by the thickness and width in inches, and divide the product by 12. Thus, a plank 18 ft.
18 X 2 X 8 long, 2 in. thick, and 8 in. wide contains18X2X8 = 24 ft. B. M.
Or, the length of the plank in inches may be multiplied by the end area in square inches, and the result divided by 144. For example, the number of feet B. M. in a piece 18 ft. long, 2 in. thick, and 8 in. wide, will be 216 in. (18 ft. X 12) multiplied by 16 sq. in. (2 X 8, the end area), or 3456 sq. in., 1 in. thick; dividing by 144, the result is .24 ft. B.M.
Cord Measure (The Woodsman's Handbook, U. S. Forest Service)
Firewood, small pulp-wood, and material cut into short sticks for excelsior, etc., is usually measured by the cord. A cord is 128 cubic feet of stacked wood. The wood is usually cut into 4-foot lengths, in which case a cord is a stack 4 feet high and wide, and 8 feet long. Sometimes, however, pulp-wood is cut 5 feet long, and a stack of it 4 feet high, 5 feet wide, and 8 feet long is considered 1. cord. In this case the cord contains 160 cubic feet of stacked wood. Where firewood is cut in 5-foot lengths, a cord is a stack 4 feet high and 61/2 feet long, and contains 130 cubic feet of stacked wood. Where it is desirable to use shorter lengths for special purposes, the sticks are often cut l1/2 ,2, or 3 feet long. A stack of such wood, 4 feet high and 8 feet long, is considered 1 cord, but the price is always made to conform to the shortness of the measure.
A cord foot is one-eighth of a cord, and is equivalent to a stack of 4-foot wood 4 feet high and 1 foot wide. Farmers frequently speak of a foot of cord wood, meaning a cord foot. By the expression "surface foot" is meant the number of square feet measured on the side of a stack.
In some localities, particularly in New England, cord-wood is measured by means of calipers. Instead of stacking the wood and computing the cords in the ordinary way, the average diameter of each log is determined with calipers and the number of cords obtained by consulting a table which gives the amount of wood in logs of different diameters and lengths.
Log Measure (The Woodsman's Handbook)
In the United States and Canada logs are most commonly measured in board feet. In small transactions standing timber is often sold by the lot or for a specified amount per acre. Standing trees which are to be used for lumber are occasionally sold by the piece. Hoop poles and other small wood are sold by the hundred or thousand. Ties and poles are sold by the piece; piles and mine props by the piece or by linear feet, the price varying in piece sales according to specifications as to diameter, length, and grade.
Firewood and wood cut into short bolts, as for small pulp-wood, excelsior-wood, spool-wood, novelty-wood, and heading, is ordinarily measured in cords.
In certain sections of the East it has been the custom to use a standard log as a unit of measure. In the Adirondacks a common unit of measure is the 19-inch standard, or, as it is often called, the " market." In this case the standard log is 19 inches in diameter at the small end inside the bark and 13 feet long. In New Hampshire the Blodgett standard is in common use. This unit is a cylinder 16 inches in diameter and 1 foot long. There were formerly other standards in use, such as the 24-inch standard once used in New England, and the 22-inch standard in use in certain parts of Canada and northern New York. The standard measure is decreasing in use.