Spraying with paris green or london purple does not endanger stock pastured in the orchard. Combinations of Arsenicals and Fungicides. — Arsenicals may be used in connection with some fungicides, and both insects and plant diseases in this manner may be combated at the same time. The arsenicals may be added to bordeaux mixture in the same proportion as if the bordeaux were plain water. Arsenate of lead may be added to the lime-sulfur wash, but the addition of paris green or arsenite of lime is liable to cause burning.

The addition of lime to paris green and london purple mixtures greatly lessens injury to foliage, and, as a consequence, they can be applied several times stronger than ordinarily used, if they are combined with the bordeaux mixture. The free lime in the mixture combines with the soluble arsenic, which is the material that injures the foliage, and the combination is thus made quite harmless.

Bait. Vegetable bait. - Spray a patch of clover or some other plant that the insects will eat with paris green or some other arsenical; mow it close to the ground, and while fresh place it in small piles around the infested plants. To avoid wilting of the bait, cover the heaps with a shingle or piece of board.

Bran-arsenic mash. White arsenic, 1/2 pound, or paris green, 1 pound; bran, 50 pounds. Mix thoroughly and then add enough water to make a wet mash.

Sugar or molasses may be added, but is unnecessary. Poisoned baits are used against cutworms and grasshoppers. See Criddle Mixture, below.

Bisulfid of carbon. - A thin liquid which volatilizes at a very low temperature, the vapor being very destructive to animal life. It is exceedingly inflammable, and should never be used near a lamp or fire. It is used for many root-insects. It is poured into a hole, which is immediately closed up, causing the fumes to permeate the soil in all directions. In loose soils it is very destructive to insects. Against weevils infesting stored grain and corn, carbon bisulfid is effective at the rate of 5 pounds for each 1000 cubic feet, provided the application is made while the temperature is not below 65° F. Make the bins as tight as possible, and after sprinkling the liquid over the grain, cover tightly with gas-proof tarpaulin. Let the fumigation continue for at least twenty-four hours.

Carbolic acid and soap mixtures. - One ounce crude carbolic acid ; 1 pound fish-oil soap; 1 gallon hot water. Mix thoroughly. This wash is used for borers. Apply with a cloth or soft broom. Use only on dormant wood.

Carbolic acid emulsion. — Soap, 1 pound; water, 1 gallon; crude carbolic acid (90 per cent strength), 1 pint. Dissolve the soap in hot water; add the carbolic acid, and agitate into an emulsion. For use against root-maggots, dilute with 30 parts of water.

Carbon bisulfid. — See Bisulfid of Carbon, above.

Criddle mixture. — Mix 1 pound of paris green with 1/2 barrel of horse droppings, and add 1 pound of salt if the material is not fresh. For use against grasshoppers.

Distillate emulsion. - 5 gallons of 28° gravity untreated distillate ; 5 gallons boiling water, 11/2 pounds whale-oil soap. Dissolve the soap in hot water, add the distillate, and thoroughly emulsify by means of a power pump until a yellowish, creamy emulsion is produced. For use on lemon dilute with 12 parts of water; on orange, with 15 parts.

Formerly much used on citrus trees, but now generally replaced by fumigation.

Hellebore. - See White Hellebore, p. 300.

Hot water. - Submerge affected plants or branches in water at a temperature of about 125°. For aphis. It will also kill rose-bugs at a temperature of 125°-135°.

Kerosene emulsion. - Hard, soft, or whale-oil soap, 1/2 pound; water, 1 gallon; kerosene, 2 gallons. Dissolve the soap in hot water ; remove from the fire and while still hot add the kerosene. Pump the liquid back into itself for five or ten minutes, or until it becomes a creamy mass. If properly made, the oil will not separate out on cooling.