The presence of bacteria in milk is what causes the milk to become unfit for human food. If there were no germs in milk, it would keep sweet and wholesome indefinitely. The problem of producing clean milk is therefore one of keeping bacteria out of the milk.

The following rules are comparatively simple and inexpensive to follow, and at the same time they will do much to help the dairyman produce clean milk: —

1.   Keep the cow clean.

2.   Clip the hair about the flank and udder at least twice each year.

3.   Wipe the udder with a damp cloth just before milking.

4.   Do not brush or feed the cow just before milking.

5.   Do not sweep the floor within three-quarters of an hour before milking.

6.   Use a small-top or covered milk-pail.

7.   Milk with clean hands and clean suits.

8.   Rinse all of the milk utensils with cold water, and then wash them thoroughly with a brush and hot water in which washing powder has been dissolved. Then scald everything in boiling water.

9.  Have the barns well lighted and ventilated. Bacteria do not thrive in sunlight. Have not less than four square feet of glass per cow.

10.   Keep the milk utensils in a place free from dust.

11.   In purchasing dairy apparatus, insist that all seams be filled with solder. Cracks and seams make an ideal place in which germs grow.

12.   Keep the milk cold (at least 50° F.) after milking.