The more important soiling corps are: winter grains (cut before blooming), peas and oats, alfalfa, clover, vetch, soybeans, millet, cowpeas, corn, sorghum, and rape.

If it is desired to feed green crops throughout the entire season, the following rotation is suggested (Woll): —

(1)  Winter wheat or rye, ready to cut and feed during May;

(2)  Green clover, for feeding during the early part of June;

(3)  Oats and peas, sown as early as possible in the spring, and later two or three times at weekly intervals; available for feeding during the remainder of June and July;

(4)  Corn, or corn and sorghum, planted at the usual time, for feeding in August and September;

(5)  The land occupied by oats and peas when cleared may be sown to millet or barley, for feeding during the fall months.

The following crops for partial soiling are recommended by Jordan: Three sowings of peas and oats in May and early June, and two plantings of corn, one at the usual time, the other two weeks later. These crops will furnish a supply of green feed when this is most likely to be needed. Quincy included four crops in his system, viz. early clover (for feeding during May and June), oats (for July), corn (for August), second growth of clover or grass (September to October 15), tops of carrots and turnips, cabbages (October 15 to November).

Special rotations for soiling crops have been recommended by various authorities, and the farmer has the choice of a variety of crops that may be grown for this purpose. The rotations suitable for soiling included below are given as guides for farmers living in the states mentioned, or under similar agricultural conditions (collected by Woll): Soiling crops adapted to northern New England (Lindsey) (For 10 cows' entire soiling)

Soiling Crops 95

Time of planting an i feeding soiling crops (Phelps)

The dates given in the table apply to central Connecticut and regions under approximately similar conditions

 

Kind of Fodder

Amount of

Seed per Acre

Approximate

Time of Seeding

Approximate Time of Feeding

1.

Rye fodder....

2 1/2 to 3 bu.

September 1

May 10-20

2.

Wheat fodder.....

2 1/2 to 3 bu.

Sept. 5-10

May 20, June 5

3.

Clover.......

20 1b.

July 20-30

June 5-15

4.

Grass (from grass-lands)

   

June 15-25

5.

Oats and peas......

2 bu. each

April 10

June 25, July 10

6.

Oats and peas......

2 bu. each

April 20

July 10-20

7.

Oats and peas......

2 bu. each

April 30

July 20, Aug. 1

8.

Hungarian........

1 1/2 bu.

June 1

Aug. 1-10

9.

Clover rowen (from 3) . .

   

Aug. 10-20

10.

Soybeans......

1 bu.

May 25

Aug. 20, Sept. 5

11.

Cowpeas......

1 bu.

June 5-10

Sept. 5-20

12.

Rowen grass (from grass-

   

Sept. 20-30

13.

Barley and peas ....

2 bu. each

Aug. 5-10

Oct. 1-30

Soiling crops for Pennsylvania (Watson and Mairs)

Crop

Area for 10 Cows

When to be Fed

Rye.............

1/2 acre

May 15-June 1

Alfalfa............

2 acres

June 1-June 12

Clover and timothy..........

3/4 acre

June 12-June 24

Peas and oats........

1 acre

June 24-July 15

Alfalfa (second crop).......

2 acres

July 15-Aug. 11

Sorghum and cowpeas (after rye) .

1/2 acre

Aug. 11-Aug. 28

Cowpeas (after peas and oats) ....

1 acre

Aug. 28-Sept. 30

Crops for partial soiling for Illinois during midsummer (Fraser)

 

Kind of Fodder

Amount of

Seed per Acre

Approximate

Time of Seeding

Approximate Time of Feeding

1.

Corn, early, sweet, or dent

6qt.

May 1

July 1-Aug. 1

2.

Corn, medium, dent .

5qt.

May 15

Aug. 1-Sept. 30

3.

Cowpeas........

1 bu.

May 15

Aug. 1-Sept. 15

4.

Soybeans......

1 bu.

May 15

Aug. 1-Sept. 15

5.

Oats and Canada peas

1 bu. each

April 15

July 1-July 15

6.

Oats and Canada peas

1 bu. each

May 1

July 15-Aug. 1

7.

Rape (Dwarf Essex) .

4 1b.

May 1

July 1-Aug. 1

8.

Rape, second sowing .

4 1b.

June 1

Aug. 1-Sept. 1

9.

Rape, third sowing

4 1b.

July 1

Sept. 1-Oct. 1

Succession of soiling crops for dairy cows for Wisconsin (Carlyle)

Soiling Crops 96

Remarks. - Feed in stable during day and turn cows on pasture at night, or feed carefully in the pasture, spreading the forage. After cutting rye, use same ground for the rape, flint corn, and sorghum, and after cutting peas and oats, use same ground for evergreen sweet corn and rape. After oats, sow peas and barley. In this way a single acre only is required (except alfalfa, which is permanent), and the forage produced is ample succulent feed for ten cows for nearly half, the year.

Mississippi. — " One of the best, surest and safest crops for soiling is sorghum, planted thick, and with the rows not over two feet apart. The sorghum may follow a crop of oats or some other early crop, and will withstand dry weather better than most other plants. Cow-peas are good, and corn may be used satisfactorily on land that will produce fair to large yields." (Moore.)

Kansas. — Dates when soiling crops are available: Alfalfa, May 20 to September 30; wheat, June 1 to June 15; oats, June 15 to June 30; sweet corn, July 15 to July 31; field corn, August 1 to September 15; sorghum, August 1 to September 30; kafir, August 1 to September 30; wheat and rye pasture, until the ground freezes. (Otis.)

Dates for planting and using soiling crops in western Oregon and western Washington (Hunter)

CROPS

When Planted

When Used

Rye and vetch .

September 1-15

April 1-May 15

Winter oats and vetch

September and October

May 15- July 1

Winter wheat and vetch

September and October

May 15-July 1

Red clover

...................

May 15-July 1

Alfalfa......

.............

During June

Oats and peas . . .

February

During June

Oats and vetch .

February

June 15-July 15

Oats and peas

April

During July

Rape......

May 1

During July

Oats and peas . . .

May

During August

Rape......

June

During August

Corn............

May 10-20

During August, September, and October.

Turnips........

July 1

Late fall and early winter

Thousand-headed kale .

March 15 and trans. June 1

October 15-April 1

Mangels, carrots and rutabagas ....

April

Oct. 15-April 1 (fed from bins, pits, or root-houses).

Rotation used successfully by practical dairymen in the middle latitudes

(40° N.)

Crop

Seeding Time

Seed per Acre

In Prime Feeding Condition

Rye and vetches .

September

2 bu. rye, 1/2 bu. vetch

April 25 to May 10

Wheat and vetches .

September

2 bu. rye, 1/2 bu. vetch

May 10 to June 1

Red and alsike clover

April or August

25 to 30 lb.

June 1 to June 25

Oats and Canada peas

April

2 bu. oats, 2 bu. peas

June 25 to July 10

Very early sweet corn

May

8qt.

July 10 to July 25

Late sweet corn .

May and June

6qt.

July 25 to Aug. 25

Sorghum and cowpeas

June

10 qt. sorghum, 50 qt. peas

Aug. 25 to frost

Cover-Crops