Computing the Balanced Ration by the Wolff-Lehmann Standards

The usual method of computing rations, however, is by the use of the German standards (Table I) as a basis, and then determining from the composition tables (Table II) how the various feeds may be compounded so that they will produce approximately the ratio of the feeding standards. Feeding standards have not been sufficiently worked out for poultry.

In the following dairy ration, the nutritive ratio is much too wide as compared with the standard: —

 

Dry

Matter

Protein

C. H. AND

Fat

Total

Nutritive Ratio

20 lb. hay.....

17.40

0.560

9.300

9.860

 

4 lb. oats........

3.56

0.368

2.772

2.640

 

4 lb. corn...........

3.56

0.316

3.056

3.372

 

Total.....

24.52

1.244

14.628

15.872

1:11.7

Feeding standard .

24.00

2.5

13.4

15.9

1:5.4

The following table shows the ration more nearly balanced by the substitution of buckwheat middlings for the corn: —

 

Dry Matter

Protein

C. H. AND

Fat

Total

20 lb. timothy hay.................

17.40

0.560

9.300

9.860

4 lb. oats...............................

3.56

0.368

2.272

2.640

4 lb. buckwheat middlings . . .

3.48

0.880

1.824

2.704

Total..............................

24.44

1.808

13.396

15.204

Nutritive ratio 1:7.4

By adding cottonseed meal, and reducing the hay, the ration conforms practically to the standard: —

 

Dry

Matter

Protein

C. H. AND

Fat

Total

18 lb. timothy hay..............

15.66

0.504

8.370

8.874

4 lb. oats..................

3.56

0.368

2.272

2.640

4 lb. buckwheat middlings . . .

3.48

0.880

1.824

2.704

2 lb. cottonseed meal................

1.84

0.744

0.888

1.632

Total.........

24.54

2.496

13.354

15.850

Nutritive ratio 1:5.3

In computing the ration, proper consideration must be given to the digestibility (Table III), and also, as determined by experience, to bulk and palatableness. The fertilizing value of the manure differs with the different feeds, as is indicated in Table IV.1

An exact mathematical method of equating rations is worked out by Willard in Bull. 115 of the Kansas Exp. Sta., and condensed in Cyclo. Amer. Agric. III, pp. 103-105. It rests on finding the protein-equating factor.

The Feeding-Standards

The relation between the protein, on the one hand, and the carbohydrates and fat on the other, is known as the nutritive ratio : thus 1:11.9 means protein 1 part to carbohydrates and fat nearly 12 (11.9) parts. A ratio less than 1: 5 is usually said to be narrow ; one more than 1: 7 is said to be wide.

Table I. Feeding-Standards A. — Per day and 1000 lb. live weight.2

 

Dry

Matter

Digestible

Nutritive Ratio

Protein

Carbohydrates and Fat

Total

 

Pounds

Pounds

Pounds

Pounds

 

Oxen at rest in the stall............

17.5

0.7

8.3

9.0

1:11.9

Wool sheep, coarser breeds.........

20.0

1.2

10.8

12.0

1:9.0

Wool sheep, finer breeds.........

22.5

1.5

12.0

13.5

1: 8.0

Oxen moderately worked........

24.0

1.6

12.0

13.0

1:7.5

Oxen heavily worked..........

26.0

2.4

14.3

16.7

1:6.0

Horses lightly worked.........

20.0

1.5

10.4

11.9

1:6.9

Horses moderately worked...

21.0

1.7

11.8

13.5

1:6.9

Horses heavily worked...

23.0

2.3

14.3

16.6

1:6.2

Milch cows, Wolff's standard ....

24.0

2.5

13.4

15.9

1:5.4

Milch cows, when yielding daily —

         

11 lb. milk.......................

25.0

1.6

10.7

12.3

1:6.7

16.6 lb. milk.........

27.0

2.0

11.9

13.9

1:6.0

22.0 lb. milk.........

29.0

2.5

14.1

16.6

1:5.7

27.5 lb. milk.........

32.0

3.3

14.8

18.1

1:4.5

Fattening oxen, preliminary period .

27.0

2.5

16.1

18.6

1:6.4

Fattening oxen, main period ....

26.0

3.0

16.4

19.4

1:5.5

1 The tables are abbreviated from Cyclo. Amer. Agric.; and nos. II, III, and V there adapted from Henry.

2 The fattening rations are calculated for 1000 lb., live weight, at the beginning of the fattening.

Table I. Feeding-Standards — Continued

 

Dry Matter

Digestible

Nutritive Ratio

Protein

Carbohydrates and Fat

Total

   

Pounds

Pounds

Pounds

Pounds

 

Fattening oxen, finishing period .

25.0

2.7

16.2

18.9

1:6.0

Fattening sheep. preliminary period .

26.0

3.0

16.3

19.3

1:5.4

Fattening sheep, main period ....

25.0

3.5

15.8

19.3

1:4.5

Fattening swine, preliminary period .

36.0

5.0

27.5

32.5

1:5.5

Fattening swine, main period ....

31.0

4.0

24.0

28.0

1:6.0

Fattening swine, finishing period .

23.5

2.7

17.5

20.2

1:6.5

Growing cattle:

         

Age (months)

Average live weight per head

         

2-3

150 lb.....

22.0

4.0

18.3

22.3

1:4.6

3-6

300 lb.....

23.4

3.2

15.8

19.0

1:4.9

6-12

500 lb.....

24.0

2.5

14.9

17.4

1:6.0

12-18

700 lb.....

24.0

2.0

13.9

15.9

1:7.0

18-24

850 lb.....

24.0

1.6

12.7

14.3

1:8.0

Growing sheep:

           

5-6

56 lb.....

28.0

3.2

17.4

20.6

1:5.4

6-8

67 lb.....

25.0

2.7

14.7

17.4

1:5.4

8-11

75 lb.....

23.0

2.1

12.5

14.6

1:6.0

11-15

82 lb.....

22.5

1.7

11.8

13.5

1:7.0

15-50

85 lb.....

22.0

1.4

11.1

12.5

1:8.0

Growing fat pigs

           

2-3

50 lb.....

42.0

7.5

30.0

37.5

1:4.0

3-5

100 1b.....

34.0

5.0

25.0

30.0

1:5.0

5-6

125 lb.....

31.5

4.3

23.7

28.0

1:5.5

6-8

170 lb.....

27.0

3.4

20.4

23.8

1:6.0

8-12

250 lb.....

21.0

2.5

16.2

18.7

1:6.5

B. — Per day and per head

Growing cattle:

           

2-3

150 lb.....

3.3

0.6

2.8

3.4

1:4.6

3-6

300 lb.....

7.0

1.0

4.9

5.9

1:4.9

6-12

500 lb.....

12.0

1.3

7.5

8.8

1:6.0

12-18

700 lb.....

16.8

1.4

9.7

11.1

1:7.0

18-24

850 lb.....

20.4

1.4

11.1

12.5

1:8.0

Growing sheep:

           

5-6

56 lb.....

1.6

0.18

0.974

1.154

1:5.4

6-8

67 lb.....

1.7

0.18

0.981

1.161

1:5.4

8-11

75 lb.....

1.7

0.16

0.953

1.113

1:6.0

11-15

82 lb.....

1.8

0.14

0.975

1.115

1:7.0

15-20

85 lb.....

1.9

0.12

0.955

1.075

1:8.0

Growing fat swine:

           

2-3

50 lb.....

2.1

0.38

1.50

1.88

1:4.0

3-5

100 lb.....

3.4

0.50

2.50

3.00

1:5.0

5-6

125 lb.....

3.9

0.54

2.96

3.50

1:5.5

6-8

170 lb.....

4.6

0.58

3.47

4.05

1:6.0

8-12

250 lb.....

5.2

0.62

4.05

4.67

1:6.5

Proteid requirements

From the results of a considerable number of fattening experiments with cattle, Armsby has formulated the approximate proteid requirements, comparing them with those for growth formulated by Kellner; and these are here followed by proteid requirements of sheep and swine: —

Approximate proteid requirements, in pounds, of cattle, per 1000 pounds live weight

American Results

Lb.

Age 1 month ......    4.80

Age 2 months......    4.00

Age 3 months .....    3.50

Age 1-11/2 years......    2.00

Age 2 years.......     1.75

Age 21/2 years......     1.50

German Results (Kellner)

Lb.

Age 2-3 months......    4.50

Age 3-6 months......    3.50

Age 6-12 months......     2.80

Age 1-11/2 years......    2.20

Age 1-11/2-2 years.....     1.50

Mature, fattening.....     1.60

Proteid requirements for sheep, per 1000 pounds live weight (Kellner)

 

Wool Breeds

Mutton Breeds

Age 5- 6 months

Lb. 3.0

Lb. 4.5

Age 6- 8 months

2.5

3.5

Age 8- 11 months

1.8

2.5

Age 11-15 months

1.5

2.0

Age 15-20 months

1.2

1.5

Proteid requirements of swine, per 1000 pounds live weight (Kellner)

 

Breeding Animals

Fattening Animals

Age 2- 3 months

Lb. 6.2

Lb. 6.2

Age 3- 5 months

4.0

4.5

Age 5- 6 months

3.0

3.5

Age 6- 8 months

2.3

3.0

Age 9-12 months

1.7

2.4

Average weights of different feeding-stuffs (Mass. Sta.)

The German Standards 155

Sample rations.

The following twelve rations for milch cows are given as samples of the systems of feeding to be recommended in different parts of the country.

(1)   Hay, 20 lb. ; oats, 3 lb. ; corn-and-cob meal, 3 lb ; oil-meal, 2 lb.