Santalols, C16H240. The principal component of East Indian sandalwood oil (from Santalum album) is a mixture of two primary unsaturated alcohols, which have been designated a- and B-santalol. The former, in all probability, is tricyclic, the latter dicyclic. Quantitatively the a-compound predominates. For two crude santalols Semmler1) records the following constants:
B. p. 161 to 168° (10 mm.); d20o 0,973; aD - 21°; nD 1,50974; d16o 0,9762; aD - 18°30'; nD 1,50974.
v. Soden2) records the following maxima and minima: d15o 0,976 to 0,978; aD - 16°30' to -20°.
In the laboratory of Schimmel & Co. the following constants were observed in connection with crude santalol of their own manufacture: d15o 0,973 to 0,982; aD - 14° to -24°; nD20o1,504 to 1,509, soluble at 20° in 3 to 4 vols, of 70 p. c. alcohol.
For the two varieties of santalol the following constants have been recorded: a-Santalol: b. p. 300 to 301° (760 mm.); 162 to 163° (13 mm.); d0o 0,9854; aD - 1,2V)
B. p. 301 to 302° (752 mm.), 155° (8 mm.); d15o0,977;4) B-Santalol: b. p. 309 to 310° (760 mm.), 170 to 171° (14 mm.); d0o 0,9868; aD - 56V)
1) Berl. Berichte 40 (1907), 1132.
2) Pharm. Ztg. 54 (1909), 251.
3) Guerbet, Compt. rend. 130 (1900), 1326.
4) v. Soden, Arch, der Pharm. 238 (1900), 362.
5) Guerbet, loc. cit.
Concerning its chemical properties, santalol has been examined thoroughly by a number of investigators. Hence a large number of derivatives is known. Upon oxidation with chromic acid, the aldehyde santalal, C15H220, results, the semicarbazone of which melts at 230V) Oxidation with permanganate in acetone solution converts it mainly into tricyc/oeksantalic acid, C11H1602, m. p. 71 to 72°.2)
The other derivatives are scarcely suited for identification purposes, hence are not mentioned in this connection.
It should be mentioned, however, that santalal also is possibly a constituent of East Indian sandalwood oil.
A so-called santal camphor, a compound C15H2402 has been separated from the oil of a South Australian sandalwood (San-talum Preissianum). It melts at 104 to 105°.3).
Amyro/s, C15H240 and C15H260, were obtained from the West Indian sandalwood oil distilled from Amyris species. They apparently constitute mixtures of compounds possessing the above formulas. Upon esterification, dehydration is apt to take place.
Betulol, C15H240, occurs free and as acetate in the oil of birch buds. B. p. 284 to 288° (743 mm.); 138 to 140° (4 mm.); d15o 0,975; aD - 35°; nD abt. 1,50179. It can be esterified quantitatively.