For the distillation of the ethereal oil of flowers Philiatrus gives the following directions:

1) Ein kostlicher theurer Schatz etc. Edition of 1555, fol. 215-217.

„Die Bliimen der Spicken oder des Lavender soft du eine kurze Zeyt lang sonnen in einer grossen glasinen retorte und darnach ein wasser in einem alembik darvonnen destilliren und abziehen. Dieses Wasser durch den ganzen Sommer gesetzt an ein warme statt an die Sonnen, so treybt es fur und fur ol fiber sich, welches Of du allwagen soft von dem wasser separiren und absundern mit einem faderfich und dasselbe fleyssig behalten in einem glasinen guttern1) wohl vermacht und verstopfet."2)

As the last of the important practitioner-scientists and authors during the period in which the treatises on distillation dominated, the many sided Neapolitan noble man, Giovanni Battista della Porta (born 1537, died 1615) should be mentioned. Of his works,3) published in twenty books, two, viz. his liber de destillatione and his liber de vinis are of special importance to the history of distillation. Of all his contemporaries, all of whom, it is true, preceded him, he had the clearest conceptions of distillation and of the products of distillation. Both of the two books, which appeared about 1563 distinguish themselves from their precursors by a more comprehensive knowledge not only of the subject matter and literature, but also by means of originality in research and mode of presentation.

Porta makes a clear cut distinction between fatty expressed and distilled oils, describes their method of preparation, also the distillation of aromatic waters and the separation of the volatile oils from the water and the apparatus used for this purpose. However, even with this clear thinking and enlightened practitioner the term distillation conveys the traditional concept of various methods of separation and extraction of parts of plants. In like manner Porta adheres to the general use of the designation oil for certain hygroscopic preparations, e. g. oleum ex salibus, oleum ex tartaro, oleum ex soda, etc.

To what extent Porta's views concerning the nature of the distillation process and the changes produced by heat in general coincide with those of contemporaries, becomes apparent from the preface (p. 367) to De destillatone, which constitutes book ten of his Magiae naturalis Iibri.1)

1) Flask.

2) Ein kostlicher theurer Schatz etc. Edition of 1555, fol. 222.

3) Jo. Baptistae Portae, Neapolitan!', Magiae naturalis fibri viginti, in quibus scientiarum naturalium divitiae et deficiae demonstrantur. lam de novo, ab omnibus mendis repurgati, in lucem prodierunt. Romae 1563 - Antwerp. 1564 - Hanoviae 1619.

These sixteenth century treatises on herbs and their distillation, as well as a number of less important ones, were the principal handbooks for the preparation of medicaments, especially of distilled waters, oils, and vinous distillates. At first they supplemented the older antidotaries, later they replaced them. The gradual change from these treatises on distillation to the so-called dispensatories is marked by the appearance of several works classed with the latter. Those of Ortolff Meydenberger,2) and the later ones of Otto Brunfels3) (born 1488, died 1534), Leonhard Fuchs4) (born 1501, died 1566) and of W. H. Ryff5) (first half of sixteenth century) may here be mentioned.

With the appearance of Paracelsus (1493 - 1541) and the spread of his iatrochemical ideas in medicine, vegetable remedies lost their former importance, their place being taken more or less by chemical products. Thus the distilled waters had to surrender their supremacy and with it the herbals and treatises on distillation lost in importance. The volatile oils, however, gradually taking the place of the distilled waters, gained in importance. This change was contemporaneous with the transition from the Destillirbiicher to the dispensatories. Although this change was brought about gradually, it is usually identified historically with the appearance of the Dispensatorium Nor/cum of Valerius Cordus in the year 1546.

1) "lam ad artes deventum est, et a distillatione duximus sumendum initium neotericorum inventum, res mira ultra mortalem sortem Iaudanda, non quae a sciolis et vulgaribus usurpari solet, nam verum esse corrumpunt, destruuntque sed ad causarum gnaris pertractata. Docet enim baec ars admirabilis, ut gravia corpora fiant spiritus et subliment et spiritus cras-cescant ac corpora evadant. Rerum vires, quae mole obrutae concultatae, suis veluti in loculis delitescentes puriores, tenuioris et absque ulla im-purioris materiae accessione e plantis, metallicis, lapidibus et gemmis elicere, easque veluti non sua forte contentas, nobiliores in sublime educere, ac veluti in coelum sustollere, poterimus chymisticis organis plantarum virtutes investigare et melius quam veteres gustu. Quid igitur ma/us poterit ex-cogitari. Natura est res producere, ac viribus dotare, artis est productas nobilitare, ac multiplicibus viribus ditare. Accedat lector ydofiad-rfz, a natura secretorum perscrutator, nam distillationes haudquaquam inglorius tractabit. Primo aquas et olea extrahemus, mox esse tincturas, elixires, sales et ejusmodi similia. Mistum quodammodo in elementa dissolvere, ac singula puriora reddere, varias et adversantes, suas facultates separare et elicere, ut ex voto uti possimus, aliaque, quae scisse et novisse non paenitebit."

2) Ortolff von Bayrland. Arzneibuch. Hie fahet an eyn buchelin von manigerley Artzeney. Mainz 1485.

3) Spiegel der Arznei. Strassburg 1532. - Reformation der Apotheken. Strassburg 1536.

4) De componendorum miscendorumque medicamentorum ratione. 1549. 5) Reformirte deutsche Apothek. Frankfurt a. M. 1563.

While in Wittenberg, Cordus (born 1515, died 1544) was in the habit of visiting with his uncle, the apothecary Ralla, who from 1532 to 1560 was proprietor of the Salomo-Apotheke in Leipzig. Here he seems to have taken an active interest in the art of distillation and in making chemico- pharmaceutical preparations. At Ralla's instigation and with his assistance, Cordus collected tried formulas for the preparation of distilled waters and other pharmaceutical preparations. These were published by Ralla.